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Zellulosenitrat (abbreviation numerical control) is called often colloquially nitrocellulose one. It contains however no RC-NO2 - of connections, but is an ester of the cellulose with the nitrate grouping RCO-NO2. It is a white, a fibrous, a smell and tasteless mass cellulose nitrate or gun cotton is also well-known as "smokeless powder": If it is ignited, it burns presently/immediately - also with absence of atmospheric oxygen - with yellowish flame to CO2, CO, H2O, N2 and H2. With the burn it, contrary to black powders, does not deliver any smoke visible for the human eye. Zellulosenitrat, also called gun cotton, may be used in no case in historical or shared black powder weapons. The response time from Zellulosenitrat amounts to approx. twenty-subject of black powders, is however more aggressive under insulation substantially and can to the weapon breakup lead. Furthermore Zellulosenitrat is subject like also the black powder to the German explosive law and may only in instruction and for investigation purposes be manufactured. High-nitrated gun cotton can detonate with impact, static unloading and fast heating up.

Material characteristic

  • Mg: 459,28 - 594.28 g/mol (dependently v.d. Chain length D. Polymers)
  • Smp.: 169-170 C
  • Flash point: 13 C
  • Ignition temp.: approx. 180 C
  • Density: approx. 1,7g/cm
  • Remaining LOCK bulge: 370 cm
  • Sensitivity to impact: 3Nm
  • CAS number: 9004-70-0
  • Stickstoffgehalt: max.13, 8%
  • Detonation speed: 7300 meters/sec.
  • Explosion strength: 147% TNT

Production

Zellulosenitrat is manufactured by nitrating the free alcohol connections by cellulose with The Stickstoffgehalt the nitrocellulose one which can be manufactured is regulated by the reaction duration. With a Stickstoffgehalt > 13% concern it then predominantly around cellulose tri nitrate (gun cotton), with a content < 13% Zellulosedinitrat (collodio-wool). After the reaction the remaining with water is washed, until it is pH neutral, since otherwise the nitrocellulose one is unstable and exists therefore the danger of the self inflammation.

Use

In pyrotechnics cellulose tri nitrate is used because of its smoke poverty for fireworks effects in closed areas. It is brought to chips, which differ by the burn-off behavior from each other in many forms into the trade, like for example as Pyrowatte, - paper, - cord, - flakes or -. It is used today also as propellant for projectiles.

Cements are use also in pure cellulose tri nitrate explosives, as component in rocket fuels, mining industry explosives, adhesives and.

From adding Kampfer as softeners Zelluloid results from Zellulosedinitrat. This material was the first thermoplastic plastic and despite its large inflammability long time as carrier for photographic films was used. Later it was replaced by Zelluloseacetat. This very day are made of Zelluloid.

A large problem is the use of Zellulosedinitrat for photographic films until approximately 1960. Film archives from this time are extremely endangered by the inclination of the material to the self inflammation and explosion and must become accordingly secured.

Solved in acetone, acetic acid ethyl ester and other solvents Zellulosedinitrat than the named-giving bonding agent is used into cellulose nitrate lacquer. Since for the various areas of application (e.g. Flexo or gravure techniques, leather or wood lacquer) different viscosities of the cellulose nitrate lacquers are necessary, with the Zellulosedinitrat by positive pressure cooking in autoclaves the viscosity is diminished.

Phases of the Deflagration

History

The "gun cotton" was discovered 1846 both independently of Christian Friedrich beautiful leg and of it in the same year also by the chemist Rudolf Christian (1806-1881).

See also

  • Cellulose

Literature

  • Richard Escales: The gun cotton (Nitrocellulosen), BoD GmbH north first EDT, September 2003, ISBN 3-831149542

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