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The wheelchair (also Rolli called) is a vehicle for humans, who are impaired for going due to physical handicap in the ability. The wheelchair makes it for this humans possible to be further mobile.
The first proofs wheelchair one finds with gespeichten wheels around 1300 v.Chr in China. King Philip II. of Spain had 1595 obviously a role chair with adjustable moving and footrest. The Uhrmacher Stephan Farfler designed a wheelchair which can be propelled 1655.
Outgoing from first simple models, in the meantime variety developed at wheelchair types, which are differentiated both after handicap characteristics and application purposes. The kind and arrangement of the wheels as well as their drive, the seat type and the folding up and/or foldingness differ depending upon type.
As Obergruppen can be defined after the drive system:
- Grab tire wheelchair, for self driving with hand operation at special grip rings
- Electrical wheelchair or E-Rolli, with electric motor, Akku and electrical control
- Sliding wheelchair, for pushing a passive person
Sub-groups from grab tire wheelchairs are:
- Standard wheelchair, from painted steel tube, weight approx. 19-21 kg
- Active wheelchair, with small weight (from titanium, carbon only approx. 9 kg) and much free space for torso movements
- Light weight wheelchair, from light alloy with small weight (approx. 13-17 kg)
- Multi-function wheelchair, positioning wheelchair or storage wheelchair with variable seat and positioning adjustment possibilities
- Running wheelchair, on high speeds optimizes
- Sport wheelchair, more on agility and to the respective requirements of the obstruction sport adapted, e.g. for wheelchair tennis, wheelchair basketball or CROSS Country.
Often grab tire wheelchairs are fold upable and detachable implemented as folding wheelchair. The rigid framework wheelchair is likewise detachable, has however a not fold upable, light and rigid seat framework.
Standard wheelchair/folding wheelchair
The designation "standard wheelchair" already points out that this model kind general contains instead of individual functions. A basic supply for the not durable use is covered with it. Therefore a standard wheelchair serves frequently as means of transport, possibly (within the stationary range) also for different persons. Equipment characteristics are:
- folding framework
- two large wheels in the back (mostly just with screwing axles)
- two small steering wheels in front
- removable and exchangeable arm rests and footrests
- Seat and back covering from imitation leather (padded or ungepolstert)
- to propel over the grab tires or by the Begleitperson
Standards and regulations
The European standard EN ISO 9999 (2003) "technical aids for handicapped humans - classification and terminology" arrange wheelchairs in the group 12-21 with eleven sub-groups.
Further standardisation works:
- DIN of 13240-1 wheelchairs; Organization expenditure 12/1983
- DIN of 13240-2 wheelchairs; Terms 12/1983
- DIN of 13240-3 wheelchairs; Mass 08/1994
- DIN EN of 12183 wheelchairs with muscle power drive - requirements and testing methods
- DIN EN of 12184 electrical wheelchairs and - mobile and associated battery chargers - requirements and testing methods
- DIN ISO 6440 wheelchairs; Designations, terms 1985
- DIN ISO 7176-1 wheelchairs; Regulation
- DIN ISO 7193 wheelchairs - maximum total mass
Road traffic regulations:
- For the equipment and permission of wheelchairs, in particular also electrical wheelchairs, several regulations exist in road traffic regulations (StVO) and the Motor Vehicles Regulations (StVZO). Wheelchairs are usually called "patient elevator" there. Electrical wheelchairs may be driven up to a speed of 6 km/h without driving licence.
- In the listing over technical aids Rehadat are registered in the product group 12-21 over 400 single models of wheelchairs available in the medical specialized trade.
- The aid listing of the German legal health insurance arranges wheelchairs in the range of 18 - "patient vehicles", with the four distinction ranges "interior", "interior and traffic", "traffic" and "stairs" with further partitionings. As for the cashes "achievement-requiring" models of the trade are registered about 1300 single models.
Articles in category "Wheelchair"
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