A visa (dt. visa) marks before or with the border crossing given official note, from which permission for the exceeding of the national border comes out. The visa is attached regularly in a passport or a passport replacement of the traveler, given in certain drop's groups and states in addition, on a special sheet. The visa is in most cases issued as entry visa, some states requires also an exit visa or a visa for journeys within the country. The term visa (also "visas" [pl.]) comes from latin (the seeing). Since in English both forms visas are called, in the meantime visas are common as Singular also in German falsely.
In the German unlimited right to residence the visa is the residence title, which is given before the entry. Generally entitled a visa to the stay in a certain state or in a state State of (e.g. Schengen area, Baltic states) for a certain period (frequent up to three months) and is issued by the consulate and/or the consular department of the message of the respective country and noted in the passport. Long-term visas for students or employees are issued by many countries. In order to receive at all a visa, the real purpose of the journey is often to occupy the financing of the stay including a health insurance protection and the readiness and possibility for the return to the country of origin. When proofs know for this an invitation from the Zielland and documents are demanded, which occupy the financial situation of the applicant in the country of origin, as for instance content proofs. An undertaking makes it possible after the right of many states to take resort to means of the a loader if national places result from the stay costs (for instance social welfare assistance costs or costs of a deportation with bad stay). All visas are connected with certain editions, e.g. the owner may not follow to the admission as a tourist of a work or make itself at all suspicious.
Citizens of the European union can due to the good relations with almost all states of the world either visa-free, i.e. without visa, or have at least hardly difficulties enter to receive a tourist visa.
Exact legal contents of the decision over a visa can be explained at the best on the basis the legal connection between the distribution of a visa and the permission of the entry with the border control. It is out-arranged in different legal orders different, which in connection with the legal protection against a not granted visa and/or an entry interdiction becomes important:
For the legal protection it results from this difference that according to the first model on permission of the entry it can be complained (because with it a new decision is connected), according to which second model however only on distribution of the visa and against a any revocation can be complained.
The demarcation between a visa and a border inspection stamp can - just as legal contents of a visa - only on the basis the legal order of the respective state concerned to be determined. Above all the following organizations are common:
Entry control notes, which are stuck as label into the passport, are similar to the form after a visa are falsification safer arranged than bare stamps and the border control facilitate. about as over bar codes, which can be read in with the departure again, a departure can be assigned to an entry procedure. Japan uses for example such a procedure.
In the GDR at that time the combination of inspection stamps and visas at the probably conceivablly highest bureaucratic expenditure one practiced: Citizens from not-socialist states - also Federal citizen, who regarded the GDR as a foreigner - received a licence, with which they could attain a visa at the border. This visa - provide just as an inspection card - with an entry inspection stamp. At the destination then still a residence permit had to be requested during a necessary registration at the police; with the likewise mandatory notice of departure an exit visa was given, which became to then provide with the departure with an inspection stamp. With some countries (CSSR, Poland) the GDR of contracts had locked visa-free passenger traffic over passport and. Inspection stamps came in this case into the GDR identity card, which entitled to the border crossing into these countries.