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A visa (dt. visa) marks before or with the border crossing given official note, from which permission for the exceeding of the national border comes out. The visa is attached regularly in a passport or a passport replacement of the traveler, given in certain drop's groups and states in addition, on a special sheet. The visa is in most cases issued as entry visa, some states requires also an exit visa or a visa for journeys within the country. The term visa (also "visas" [pl.]) comes from latin (the seeing). Since in English both forms visas are called, in the meantime visas are common as Singular also in German falsely.

Visa as right to reside

In the German unlimited right to residence the visa is the residence title, which is given before the entry. Generally entitled a visa to the stay in a certain state or in a state State of (e.g. Schengen area, Baltic states) for a certain period (frequent up to three months) and is issued by the consulate and/or the consular department of the message of the respective country and noted in the passport. Long-term visas for students or employees are issued by many countries. In order to receive at all a visa, the real purpose of the journey is often to occupy the financing of the stay including a health insurance protection and the readiness and possibility for the return to the country of origin. When proofs know for this an invitation from the Zielland and documents are demanded, which occupy the financial situation of the applicant in the country of origin, as for instance content proofs. An undertaking makes it possible after the right of many states to take resort to means of the a loader if national places result from the stay costs (for instance social welfare assistance costs or costs of a deportation with bad stay). All visas are connected with certain editions, e.g. the owner may not follow to the admission as a tourist of a work or make itself at all suspicious.

Citizens of the European union can due to the good relations with almost all states of the world either visa-free, i.e. without visa, or have at least hardly difficulties enter to receive a tourist visa.

Visa and border crossing

Exact legal contents of the decision over a visa can be explained at the best on the basis the legal connection between the distribution of a visa and the permission of the entry with the border control. It is out-arranged in different legal orders different, which in connection with the legal protection against a not granted visa and/or an entry interdiction becomes important:

  • In some states, as for instance the USA, the visa is treated legally not as residence title, but as document of own kind, which represents a necessary condition to place at the border crossing point only the actual request for permission of the entry and the stay without the visa actually already to the stay entitled - with the entry the unlimited right to residence is only granted. This legal construction makes it possible to examine the conditions for entry despite existing visa with the border crossing and to only permit after this examination the entry.
  • In Europe, particularly in the Schengen area, the visa is predominantly already regarded however as actual permission for the entry and for the stay. The permission of the entry with a visa by border control officials does not contain then no more its own decision over the stay, because this was already met with the visa. Also in the Schengen area however the conditions for entry are with the border crossing again to examine (article 6 of the Schengener of execution convention). Therefore a possibility must exist of preventing the entry also with existing visa. To a similar result as the US construction regulations therefore lead according to which the revocation of visas before the entry under relieved conditions is possible (see in Germany "ยง 52 exp. 1 No. 3 of the residence law).

For the legal protection it results from this difference that according to the first model on permission of the entry it can be complained (because with it a new decision is connected), according to which second model however only on distribution of the visa and against a any revocation can be complained.

Visa and border inspection stamp

The demarcation between a visa and a border inspection stamp can - just as legal contents of a visa - only on the basis the legal order of the respective state concerned to be determined. Above all the following organizations are common:

  • Documentation of the fact (controlled) of the border crossing: The border inspection stamp documents only the entry (or departure). It contains data as for instance to the day, to the place and to used means of transport. This function has the border inspection stamp for instance in the Schengen states. It makes explanations possible about how frequently only a visa valid for a limited number of entries was used, and whether the maximum duration of stopover was exceeded, a unlimited right to residence of foreigners, who may enter visa-free, is granted then not by the stamp, but is derived directly from legislation, as in case of the Schengen area from article 20 of the Schengener of execution convention.
  • Information about the unlimited right to residence in the inspection stamp
: This concerns a variant of the first case: The unlimited right to residence results from the law, its extent (about: Stay up to 90 days permitted) is communicated in the inspection stamp, without by marking its own legal decision is made.
  • Documentation of the residence decision: If the right of the entry state plans the fact that the border inspection personnel lends the unlimited right to residence only with the entry can be documented by the entry stamp this decision. Combinations with the first variant are conceivable (about: Documentation only the border crossing by the stamp in the passport, documentation of the length and kind of the permitted stay on a separate entry map). Some states (as for instance Israel, Malaysia and Singapore) record the residence decision with indication of the permissible duration of stopover (e.g. 90 days) and the residence purpose (e.g. visitor) in the inspection stamp with visa-free entries, while they document the fact of the entry with entries with visa by another inspection stamp only according to the first variant.
  • At the border given visa: Some states give visas regularly at the border and provide these visas then if necessary additionally with entry inspection stamps. This is for instance in Turkey usual regarding some there visa-requiring states. In the Schengen area visas at the border can be likewise given, however only as exception visa, if an unforeseeable and compelling entry reason is made valid and a special interest (political or humanitarian nature) is made convincing.
  • Entry control notes, which are stuck as label into the passport, are similar to the form after a visa are falsification safer arranged than bare stamps and the border control facilitate. about as over bar codes, which can be read in with the departure again, a departure can be assigned to an entry procedure. Japan uses for example such a procedure.

    In the GDR at that time the combination of inspection stamps and visas at the probably conceivablly highest bureaucratic expenditure one practiced: Citizens from not-socialist states - also Federal citizen, who regarded the GDR as a foreigner - received a licence, with which they could attain a visa at the border. This visa - provide just as an inspection card - with an entry inspection stamp. At the destination then still a residence permit had to be requested during a necessary registration at the police; with the likewise mandatory notice of departure an exit visa was given, which became to then provide with the departure with an inspection stamp. With some countries (CSSR, Poland) the GDR of contracts had locked visa-free passenger traffic over passport and. Inspection stamps came in this case into the GDR identity card, which entitled to the border crossing into these countries.


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