The usual Robinie (Robinia pseudoacacia), also wrong acacia, illusory acacia or silver rain mentioned, is a tree from that the (Faboideae) in that the (Fabaceae). With to the (Mimosoideae) belonging acacias the Robinie is not particularly close related, even if it has the pinnated sheets outwardly together with these as well as thorns. Since the tree originates from North America, meanwhile the Robinie occurring also wildly in Europe is considered as Neophyt.
Carl von who described the kind of the Robinien (Robinia) for the first time scientifically, designated these after Jean Robin, the yard gardner of the French kings Heinrich IV. and Ludwig XIII., or after its son, who was likewise a yard gardner.
The scientific kind name pseudoacacia refers to (misleading) the similarity with the acacias. The occasional use of the name silver rain is to be due to the white bloom conditions of the tree.
The usual Robinie is a summer-greener tree with more roundish or loosely screen-like crown, which a height of 20 to 25 meters can reach. The bark of the trunk is grey-brown to dark-brown, deeply gefurcht and frequently net industrial union lengthwise cracked. The branches stand turned at a short trunk, which is inclined to the training of a double crown. The tree is to a large extent winter frost hard.
The tree itself only very late in the spring. The change-constant and unmatched pinnated reach a length of up to 30 centimeters. They consist of in each case 9 to 19 egg-shaped single lamellas, which can fold themselves by small joints with large heat perpendicularly downward.
While the bloom condition range and the crown are usually without thorns, the are particularly reshuffled to, red-brown colored thorns long to 3 cm at the
The blooms of the tree appear in the months May to June. In each case 10 to 25 of the strongly smelling blooms hangs in grapes/clusters long between 10 and 25 centimeters on the recent impulses. The blooms, which are botanisch seen butterfly blooms, offer plentifully Nektar and therefore by many insects are visited. Nektar and Staubbeutel become at the same time ripe. If an insect sits down on the bloom, first the scar steps out, which brushes possibly bring along Pollen off of the belly.
After dusting the blooms laterally strongly flattened cases are formed. They are red-brown, briefly gestielt, about five to ten centimeters long and a centimeter wide. Their covering is pergament lederig.
In the recessing of the cases about four to twelve these seeds, which developed in September, lie are six to seven millimeters long, brown, smoothly and very hardshelled. It surrounding case tears gradually during the winter along the moving as well as the belly seam up. Since the fruits remain hanging every now and then into the next spring on the tree, the usual Robinie ranks among the so-called Winterstehern.
The usual Robinie spreads its seed by the wind (so-called Anemochorie). The propagation distance, which the seeds of the plant can overcome in this way, is relatively small because of their high weight. The seeds are spread only rarely over a further distance than 100 meters.
The Robinie over two mechanisms compensates this disadvantage. The tree species flowers and fruchtet already in the sixth Lebensjahr, and their seeds are for a very long time germable. The duration of the germ ability becomes years estimated on up to 30. For germinating the plants need however very much sunlight. These characteristics cause the pioneer ability of the Robinie. On the basis of already existing seed trees the Robinie is very fast in a the position to bewachsen new open locations; the kind is inclined very strongly to the Verwildern.
In addition the Robinie is able to increase by root from runners vegetativy. This also as "klonales growth "designated spreading is favoured, if it comes to location disturbances as for instance fires or Rodungen. The usual Robinie reacts to it with intensified training of root rungs, which leads in the long run to a compression of existence already existing; other kinds are displaced thereby.
The usual Robinie is a tree, which is originally in the Atlantic North America resident and in the area of the Appalachen as well as the US Federal States Pennsylvania, Missouri, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Indiana and Oklahoma was common. It grows there as pioneer plant in leaves mixed woodlands on moderately nutrient-rich sand and loamy soils at heights up to 1600 meters of NN. Their natural circulation area is characterised by a humid climate with annual precipitation between 1020 and 1830 millimeters.
As the investigations quoted by Kowarik show, the usual Robinie is in its original circulation area a tree, which introduces the forest regeneration after "catastrophic "disturbances as for instance a Waldbrand or eradications. The again settled area is dominated for approximately 20 to 30 years by this tree species, which is then displaced by other tree species as for instance the tulip tree. The tree species, which are able to displace the usual Robinie at their location are characterised usually by the fact that they grow more highly than the Robinie and very strongly shade donates. In forest stands of the Appalachen, which could develop for a long time unimpaired, the portion of the Robinie amounts to less than 4 per cent.
The undemanding Robinie was spread by humans in numerous areas, which do not belong to their original spreading area. It is thereby a so-called hemerochore plant and counts due to its introduction after 1492 in Europe to the Neophyten. It is today in Europe, North Africa, to find west and Eastern Asia. Also in North America it extended its circulation area on the basis of cultivations both spatially and standortlich substantially. Both in Europe and in the again settled North American circulation areas it grows on locations, as which are substantially drier in their original circulation area.
To Europe it was introduced between 1623 and 1635 by Jean Robin von Virginia to Paris. Due to its attractive blooms and its pinnated sheets it was cultivated first as exotic ornamental shrub in parks. 1640 arrived it to England, and first proofs for a cultivation in Germany are present for the year 1670, where one cultivated them in the citizen of Berlin desire garden. 1726 one could do it in Italy.
In the course 18. Century began one increasingly to see in this tree a kind interesting for forestry with which one hoped to be able to cover the increasing wood need. Two characteristics favoured their rapid spreading: The Robinie makes only small demands against the soil and is thereby a suitable tree species for the reforestation of forests destroyed by excessive use, and it is a plant, which prevents a further soil erosion. It is therefore used for Aufpflanzungen in sand areas until today.
The usual Robinie is cultivated today purposefully on a broad location spectrum. To a stronger natural spreading it comes thereby particularly in the areas, which are climatically particularly favoured, since the tree is dependent for seed training on high heat sums in the vegetation period. In these areas it spreads, on the basis of cultivations, along edges of forest and traffic routes on fallow lands as well as urbanindustriellen locations. It penetrates also into locations such as sand drying and lime lean lawns and displaces the kinds growing there.
The usual Robinie spread after the Second World War in addition on rubble debris surfaces strongly. It led the destruction and the following care lacking of many properties to the fact that in cities as for instance Leipzig, Berlin, Stuttgart and Cologne spacious surfaces developed, which bewachsen with Robinien are.
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