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» Personal Loan No Credit Check, Online Economics » Explosive » Topics begins with T » Triaminotrinitrobenzol


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Structural formula
General information
NameTriaminotrinitrobenzol
Other namesTATB, 1,3,5-Triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzol, 2,4,6-Trinitro-1,3,5-benzenetriamine, 1,3,5-Triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene
Sum formulaC6H6N6O6
CAS number3058-38-6
Short descriptionyellow crystals
Characteristics
Mol mass258,15 g/mol
State of aggregationfirmly
Density1,94 g/cm
Melting point>350 "°C
Boiling point "°C
Steam pressure
Solubility
Safety references
Gefahrensymbole
R and S-sentencesR: S:
MAK
As far as possible and common, SI-UNITs are used. If not differently notes, the indicated data apply with standard conditions.

 

Triaminotrinitrobenzol (short TATB) is an energetic, aromatic nitro compound, which is distinguished by an extraordinary stability. TATB is a strong and explosive explosive, which is superior and at the same time extremely insensitive in its achievement TNT. The stability of TATB against impact and heat effect is larger than from every other well-known material with comparable power density. TATB is not brought even by the impact with aircraft crashes, fires, explosions or the impact by projectiles from hand-held weapons to the explosion. Because of these safety characteristics TATB is the most important explosive in modern nuclear weapons.

Characteristics

TATB forms yellow, triclinic crystals. The solubility of TATB is small and the recrystallization difficult. The solubility in Dimethylsulfoxid amounts to 0.47 g/L with 21 "°C and 6.8 g/L with 145 "°C.Der value for the education enthalpy lies with = -540 kJ/kg. Detonation speed with maximum density: ~ 8000 m/s. Detonation pressure: 31 GPa friction sensitivity: 350 N sensitivity to impact: 50 N m

The extreme insensitivity of TATB is explained by inter+molecular and intramolekulare hydrogen bonds, which due to the alternating Nitro and amino groups around the benzene ring to be formed.

Production

  • (1) By nitrating of 1,3,5-Trichlorbenzol (TCB) [108-70-3] C6H3Cl3 with HNO3/H2SO4 and following treatment with ammonia in alcohol.
  • (2) By nitrating of 1,3,5-Trichlorbenzol (TCB) [108-70-3] C6H3Cl3 with HNO3/H2SO4 with over 100"°C to 1,3,5-Trichlor-2,4,6-trinitrobenzol (TCTNB) [2631-68-7] C6Cl3N3O6, which are treated afterwards with ammonia. The reaction is accomplished under pressure with 150"°C in toluol [108-88-3] C7H8, which contain something water. The proximity of the Nitrogruppen facilitates the exchange of chlorine by amino groups. The product is washed for the distance of NH4Cl with water. Except ammonium chloride chlorinated by-products in small concentration form.
  • (3) From reduction of trinitrotoluene [H2 in Dioxan [123-91-1] C4H8O2 4-Amino-2,4-dinitrotoluol [19406-51-0] results to 118-96-7] C7H5N3O6 with hydrogen sulfide [7783-06-4] C7H7N3O4. This is nitrated with HNO3 in H2SO4 to Pentanitroanilin [21985-87-5] C6H2N6O10, which with ammonia [to 7664-41-7] NH3 in Dichlormethan [to TATB reacts to 75-09-2] CH2Cl2.
  • (4) VNS (vicarious nucleophilic substitution) procedure Pikramid (Trinitroanilin) [to 489-98-5] C6H4N4O6 C3H11N2I in presence of Natriummethylat [124-41-4] in Dimethylsulfoxid [to 67-68-5] reacts C2H6OS directly to TATB with 1,1,1-Trimethylhydraziniumiodid (TMHI). In place of TMHI also 1,1,1-Triethylhydraziniumchlorid or 4-Amino-1,2,4-triazol [584-13-4] can be used C2H4N4 or Hydroxylamin H3NO or Methoxyamin CH5NO. The basic materials are agitated several hours under moderate heating up. Afterwards the reaction mixture is let in and neutralized in ice water. The fine-crystalline TATB is filtered off, washed and dried. The product is a mustard-yellow powder.
  • Dressing: By recrystallization from Dimethylsulfoxid [C12H10O TATB with rougher granulation will receive 67-68-5] C2H6OS and Diphenylether [to 101-84-8].

History

TATB for the first time 1888 manufactured by Jackson and Wing. Into the 1950-er years in the Naval Ordnance Laboratories (the USA) the excellent stability and insensitivity of TATB one recognized and efficient synthesis procedures with high yield was developed. Into the 1970-er years TATB was examined and characterized particularly in detail in the USA.

Use

TATB becomes despite its high manufacturing costs (100. - "€/kg) used, if highest insensitivity, stability and security are particularly important, e.g. in atom bombs ("nuclear warheads") or in ammunition for ships and submarines.

Detonations in explosives on TATB basis run differently than detonations in sensitive explosives as for example LX-10 (95% HMX + 5% Viton compound A binder). Detonations in TATB explosives are fast, but delay-free, and do not show a comparatively broad, three-dimensional reaction zone behind the detonation front. Such not-ideal detonations cannot be computed on the basis of simple theories sufficiently exactly. The use of TATB in weapon systems requires a highly developed understanding of the physics and chemistry of initiation and detonation.

Important explosives with TATB are:

  • LX-17: 92.5% TATB + 7.5% Kel f 800 (LX = Livermore explosive) the powder substance from TATB with bimodaler granulation and binder under vacuum hot-isostatically injected to 98.8% TMD (theoretical maximum density); Density 1.905 g/cm Kel f 800 (chlorine tri fluorine ethyls, CAS NR. 9010-75-7) is an inert thermoplastic. The form-stable can be worked on like a piece aluminum with high precision e.g. through tricks or milling form-giving.
  • PBX-9502: 95% TATB + 5% Kel f 800
  • PBX-1: 87% HMX + 7% TATB + 6% Kel f 800 [9010-75-7] binders (TATB can phlegmatisieren mixtures with RDX or HMX better than graphite.)

Legal regulations

Production and processing of TATB are regulated in Germany by the explosive law.

Literature

  • P.F.Pagoria et al.: Thermochimica Acta 384, 187 (2002) "A Review OF Energetic of material Synthesis"

Articles in category "Triaminotrinitrobenzol"

We found here 8 articles.

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» Tetryl
» Time fuse
» TNT equivalent
» Tri nitrobenzene
» Triaminotrinitrobenzol
» Trinitroazetidin
» Trinitrotoluene
» Tritonally

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