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Page modified: Wednesday, July 13, 2011 14:45:04

Tri nitrobenzene (TNB) is an explosive. The sum formula reads C6H3N3O6. The explosive yield of TNB is comparable with by TNT. Despite an easily higher explosive yield than TNT the use of TNB for economic reasons does not take place.

Structural formula
General information
Name1,3,5-Trinitro-Benzol
Other namesTNB, trichloroethylene Nitro Benzen, sym Trinitrobenzol, Benzit, RC, RA
Sum formulaC6H3N3O6
CAS number
  • 99-35-4 (pure 1,3,5-Isomer)
  • 25377-32-6 (isomer mixture)
Short descriptionyellow crystals
Characteristics
Mol mass213,11 g/mol
State of aggregationfirmly
Density1,688 g/cm
Melting point122,5-123,2 "°C
Boiling point315 "°C
Steam pressure8,53 10-4 Pa (25 "°C)
Solubilitywell in Ether, acetone, Benzen, not in water (0.278 g/L with 15 "°C)
Safety references
Gefahrensymbole
TGiftig
R and S-sentencesR: 2-26/27/28-33-50/53S: (1/2) 35-45-60-61
MAK-
As far as possible and common, SI-UNITs are used. If not differently notes, the indicated data apply with standard conditions.

 

Characteristics

Tri nitrobenzene is steadily reacted against acids and with Basen. It is insolubly in water, a little solubly in alcohol, Ether and benzene, well solubly in acetone or Ethylacetat.Die detonation speed amounts to maximally about 7000 m/s with an explosion warmth of approximately 4500 kJ/kg. The remaining LOCK bulge amounts to 330 cm Sensitivity to impact: 7.4 Nm.

Production

The production of Trinitrotobenzol takes place via nitrating of m-Dinitrobenzol with a mixture from one third of water-free and two thirds of fuming sulfuric acid. The yield of this method amounts to under ideal conditions up to 50%, is however usually smaller. The representation from 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluol is likewise possible, whereby after an oxidation to with Kaliumdichromat and sulfuric acid a Decarboxylierung in cooking water follows.

Use

TNB is less impactsensitively than TNT, however stable due to missing group of methyls chemically less. Due to the more complex production it is importantly more expensively than TNT and only for special purposes interesting.

Why does TNB

TNB owes its like all homogeneous explosives, to its chemical instability. Chemically homogeneous explosives consist not of a mixture of fuel and oxidizer (like e.g. black powders), but of only one substance. The fuel (carbon), necessary for the explosion, and the oxygen are bound thereby in the molecule of the substance, but by a small active element from each other separated (usually nitrogen). By the proximity of burning and oxygen on molecular level and by the fine dispersion in the smallest possible (atomic) yardstick an optimal conversion of the reaction partners can be achieved. By a suitable procedure (heating, impact or both) if energy is supplied to the substance, the limited stably stored nitrogen atom between carbon and oxygen removes and the elements to connect itself. If a sufficient quantity of the substance was ignited, the delivered energy keeps this reaction upright and the entire amount of material is converted. The reaction zone goes through thereby as very fast, narrow autowave the substance. The speed of this reaction zone reached with efficient explosives several thousand meters per second, exceeds thus the internal-material speed of sound. Connected with it it comes to an extremely steep pressure and temperature rise, which justifies the efficiency of explosive explosives.


Articles in category "Tri nitrobenzene"

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» Tetryl
» Time fuse
» TNT equivalent
» Tri nitrobenzene
» Triaminotrinitrobenzol
» Trinitroazetidin
» Trinitrotoluene
» Tritonally

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