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The term tourism science exists as word creation only since beginning of the 90's. The term is not established yet and it is disputed whether there is its own tourism science or whether one not rather of tourism sciences with different explanation beginnings or partial sciences like e.g. Tourism sociology, tourism history, tourism economic science to speak should.

Tourism science

The term tourism science appears again, however thereby the impression is not to be aroused that a scientific discussion took place over the tourism only since beginning of the nineties. Already 1929 had itself Robert luck man in his citizen of Berlin Institut with questions of the tourism employ (see history of the research on tourism). Luck man is called today a joint founder of the modern tourism science. However also still the tourism science stood on wackligen legs, critics doubted after the war that there could be at all an independent tourism science.

The critics set - logically quite entitled - usually already with the tourism term. Actually conditions a science on weak legs, if it were not able to support perfect outlined realization object fulfilled with independent existence (Hunziker). In addition, E. Spatt treated 1975 the topic the tourism teachings as science and came to the result that this question could be answered only from the realization object. Because in the realization object as it were all experienced and experienced circumstances of an existence range unite, as far as it can be arranged on the basis of uniform criteria. Only since beginning of the 90's the tourism science with itself begins to become dissatisfied, becomes sensitive for its limitness and looks for ways, which lead to a broad founded tourism science (see Spode). Some authors titelten even: "The tourism and concomitantly its teachings have retired, are no longer modern and also not more adequately "see M. The tourism science at that time was of a strongly economiceconomics aspect coined/shaped, since now several scientific disciplines of the tourism took care of, became it time for an advancement. The development of the today's tourism science could begin.

Establishment of the tourism science

World-wide the tourism science becomes general and in the tourism, particularly in Germany, which criticizes still existing science distance, during - research within the academic and social range a high value has, is clearly underrepresented the tourism science in the German research landscape. At German universities tourism science functions mainly as subsection of the management economics (University of Lueneburg, University of Rostock, University of Dresden, University of Trier) or mainly it is arranged for geography (University of Paderborn, University of grab forest, University of Trier, University of University of Kiel, University of Goettingen, University of Aachen) however very much practice and application orientated at the professional schools. In the year 1993 by cock and Kagelmann the manual in such a way specified was published to the tourism science (tourism psychology and - sociology). Starting from this time the discussion took place around an establishment of the tourism teachings as science (tourism science) in Germany.

"Doubt many tourism scientists that it is at all possible, a general tourism science science-theoretically to establish." (Kulinat 2003)

Thus the tourism science could be developed as follows e.g. after Professor Nahrstedt:

  • Research on tourism in existing disciplines (e.g. geography of the tourism, economic science of the tourism, history of the tourism etc.)
  • Interdisciplinary research on tourism in co-operation of several disciplines.

This development also already took place, training further courses of studies, e.g. tourism (University of Berlin) or until approx. 1997 the training further study tourism science at the University of Bielefeld it was interdisciplinary taught i.e. that several scientific disciplines are involved in the tourism training and the tourism from the view of the respective science examines e.g. the sociology, psychology, science of history, economic science, jurisprudence, geography or also the At the professional school Eberswalde was introduced the course of studies "lasting tourism", which is likewise interdisciplinary put on.

  • Tourism science: Research on tourism due to a uniform scientific paradigm for the article tourism as total phenomenon. This perspective still stands to the discussion. Many scientists submit suggestions for a paradigm, however still no paradigm was found, which would be compatible by all scientists accepted and/or with their scientific disciplines.

Crib village means for this: More qualified research is urgently necessary, but, we do not need their own tourism science or Tourismologie in addition. The methods of other scientific disciplines are completely sufficient, in order to examine the tourism. Also Hansruedi Mueller expresses itself against its own tourism science, because this could exist only, where the tourism in its whole and/or in individual problem areas does not exhibit completely specific aspects with the help of other sciences to be analyzed would be. (See MUELLER, Freizeit and Tourismus 2002). A tourism science could exist only if it itself:

  • by isolation from the term (with exactly definable, measurable, problem oriented and time-dependent definitions) or
  • by isolation from the system-theoretical beginning (summary of the scientifically relevant elements and characteristics) from other sciences to distinguish would leave.

Since momentarily these requirements are not yet fulfilled to a tourism science, the definition of the tourism science of Mueller reads as follows:

We understand thus the tourism science as applied science. We refer the bases for the realizations from different fields of knowledge. (See MUELLER, Freizeit and Tourismus. An introduction to theory and politics, 2002).

What we find today at the professional schools and universities, is additives in such a way specified a tourism science, with which the individual scientific disciplines to a large extent unconnected next to each other.

Pompl criticizes that it concerns with so a tourism science around no own science, but science-theoretically only a klassifikatorischen generic term, which requires its own tourism science of its own paradigm (conception of the world) to the reason and existence.

A goal should be it of furnishing the tourism science as independent academic institution (faculty, Institut) to etc. Since concerns the problems of the tourism, but a multiplicity of different science disciplines, the integration strength, such an institution would have terribly largely its (see Meder 1999). As science potentially which can be united, Meder calls: The economic science (management economics and political economy), geography, science of history, sociology, and culture work, the general time and leisure science, biology and ecology, traffic science, the political science, the psychology, the jurisprudence, the health science, medium and Design science, the information science and logistics, as well as civil engineer nature and architecture science (see Meder 1999). Whether this enumerating is already complete, may be doubted, then occur to me e.g. still the culture science, medicine or the space planning, which to the tourism science could make a contribution. For Meder now the question, how all these disciplines arises be combined or even (studyable) a course of studies under the label "tourism science" can be realized. For Meder the problem of the tourism science is not actually the organizer and also not the traveler as well as the journey, the problem is the common thing of our way of life in the mode of the mobility.

For a tourism science as "science" thus own methods and a paradigm would have to be developed, this however presumably still some years will take. Therefore there is still no "genuine tourism science separates only additives in such a way specified a tourism science. The existing scientific disciplines must be sufficient, in order to analyze the tourism. There should be however problems and questions, which are not to be solved with the instruments of the other sciences, its own tourism science would be necessary. The tourism is thus still no science, but a research object or a Forschungsgebiet.


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