Topinambur (Helianthus tuberosus), occasionally also earth pear (called in south bathing also Ross , because they were fed horses), is a plant from the family of basket bloom plants (Asteraceae) and ranks among the same kind as the sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Just like these it has large sheets and (however small) strong-yellow blooms. Further names for the Topinambur are: Earth artichoke, earth apple, earth pear, earthshocks, earth sunflower, eternity potato, Indian tuber, Jerusalemartischocke, small sunflower, tuber sunflower, sugar potato. The designation earth pear (earth apples) is used in South Germany and Austria also as name for the potato.
The krautige plant of several years becomes meters high up to 3. From the tubers upright forms. At these gestielte, egg-shaped raue sheets sit. These become sieve up to ten centimeters broadly and between ten and twenty five centimeters long.
The four to eight centimeters broad, bloom conditions flower in the period of August until November. They sit in the shoulders of the upper The tongue and tube blooms are zwittrig.
Topinambur originates from north and Central America. Their original circulation area is assumed in Mexico. Today the kind is common in the central and eastern North America as well as in Central America. It is considered as cultivated plant of the Indians from before-Colombian time. Today Topinambur in nearly all continents is cultivated. Main cultivation areas are in North America, Russia, Australia and Asia. In Europe became the tasting tuber in the middle 18. Century of the potato displaces to a large extent. She is only cultivated with small economic meaning in Southern France and the Netherlands. In Germany one finds only small cultivation areas in Lower Saxony and bathing.
1610 were brought the kind from North America to Europe. Falsely it was designated after the a Brazilian Indian people, the three years after introduction Paris visited. First the Topinambur was bred as a useful plant. The tubers were in 19. Century an important food and feed.
In Central Europe Topinambur verwildert frequently and can cause however only few Fressfeinde - like other Neobiota and/or Neophyten - problems, since it displaces domestic plants, has. Because of the late bloom time the seeds in Central Europe do not mature normally out, so that the plants are dependent over the Wurzelknollen completely on vegetative Vermehrung. In July and August the plant at the underground trains oblong - tubers, which serve as carbohydrate memory. From them new rungs float in the next spring. The plant is in a the position to penetrate into an existing Pflanzengesellschaft and due to its rapid elevator growth in the spring, at which the other plants are very strongly beschattet, to displace.
Topinambur is suitable, in the taste similarly the artichoke, well as supplement. The tubers are with Diabetikern like, are there the multiple sugar Inulin to confound (with the enzyme insulin) contained. As food the Topinamburknolle enjoyed 17 particularly in France after its introduction at the beginning. Century large popularity. It was displaced again to a large extent however after the introduction of the more productive potato.
In the Black Forest the Topinambur tubers are likewise called, converted Topinambur to a digesting liquor, "", "Topi "or also "Rossler "(derived from Ross
Further Topinambur is today also as ornamental plant.
Topinambur is cultivated to small extent also as fodder plant for game fodder. Above all the young impulses are accepted by the game to the To attained full growth plants game goes against it rarely since the sheets obviously too rau are. Beside wild pigs eat also Bisam, moving rat, Schermaus and game rabbits these tubers. Since Topinambur settles above all the bank ranges of running waters, it can come here due to the rooting activities to larger damage to the bank stabilization.
In addition the rooting activity of the rodents contributes to the spreading of the plants. Tubers and tuber fragments opened by rodents are frequently washed by running waters and to settle other Habitate then again.