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The three-sector hypothesis is a theory from the political economy and by C. Clark and Jean was developed.

It describes that itself the emphasis of gainful occupation first of the primary sector of the economy (production production), afterwards on which and on the tertiary sector (service) shifts secondary (production processing). sees the development extremely optimistic and speaks in one of its books ("the large hope of the twentieth century") about the rising prosperity, social security, blossoming education and culture, to higher qualification level, humanization of the work and the avoidance of unemployment.

Countries with a small Pro-Kopf-Einkommen exhibit a low level of development. The principal part of the national income is obtained by production in the primary sector. Progressively developed countries with average Pro-Kopf-Einkommen predominantly gain their income in the secondary sector. In highly developed countries with high income the tertiary sector has a dominating acquisition portion of the gross income.

With the help of the number of the employed persons or the portion of the BSP (gross national product) one can see that Germany to end 19. Century an agrarian company, into the 70's 20. Century an industrial company was. The expansive tertiary sector overhauled then into the 70ern the secondary sector and one can since then in the FRG of a service company speak.

Different empirical investigations seem to confirm the three-sector hypothesis, however 4 Fehlprognosen in book "the large hope of the twentieth century" are to be recognized:

1. said that the transition of the secondary to the tertiary sector would eliminate the problem of unemployment, since this sector was not rationalizable according to its opinion. When it set up its theory in the 30's, it did not suspect however the enormous technical progress in the service sector, which for example the invention of the computer brought with itself.

2. According to the three-sector model there cannot be a state, in which primary and tertiary sector very strongly and the secondary sector are only very weakly represented. This theory already alone in the states weakly, which are particularly strongly on the tourism dependent as economics, those however only a very weak secondary sector, however a high agrarian sector to exhibit. Examples are the Dominican Republic of, (still) Turkey, the Philippines, Thailand, etc.

3. Fehlprognose mentioned that it will not give a state, in which the secondary sector will still very strongly represent, although it concerns a highly developed state in the third phase. Best counter example is the Federal Republic of Germany. In Germany the secondary sector decreased/went back for the 50's strongly, however not on the level, which forecast Reasons for this lie in the extremely high exports of Germany.

4. Fehlprognose means that the tertiary sector would always place an enormously high requirement for education against the employees. This is not however the case. Since the tertiary sector is often equated with the service sector, also occupations rank such as Schuhputzer, hostesses, Liftboys among it. The theory of the enormously high education level, which must be achieved, in order to be able to work in the service sector, is likewise disproved through this occupations.

described the tertiary sector - which is usually equated with the service sector - as production sector with small or no technical progress and thus if necessary small increases of the productivity. The allocation of the service sector to this tertiary sector is today only in few ranges durable. Among other things therefore the insertion of a fourth sector "information sector" is publicised and a development to the information society instead of to the service company is prognosticated.

The conceptualness first, and/or second and third sector becomes frequent also for the distinction of (more profit-oriented) private sector (1. Sector), State of (2.Sektor) and nonprofit organizations (3. Sector) uses.

Structural change after

The shift of the person employed ratio within the individual sectors of the economy in different phases toward Jean

First phase: Traditional civilization

Employment figures:

  • Primary sector: 70%
  • Secondary sector: 20%
  • Tertiary sector: 10%

This phase does not represent a society those is scientifically seen yet far developed, one can hardly of the employment of machines speak. The level of development corresponds European states in the early Middle Ages or that of a developing country.

Second phase: Period of transition

Employment figures:

  • Primary sector: 20%
  • Secondary sector: 50%
  • Tertiary sector: 30%

In the primary sector increasingly more machines begun this reduces the need at jobs. Resulting from it rises the demand for machines, which are produced by the secondary sector. The transitional phase begins with an event or a procedure that equal the industrialization adds is: progressive mechanization and/or automation assembly-line production, Manufaktur etc.

The tertiary sector begins itself to form, national administration begins itself to form, just as the financial sector develops.

Third phase: Tertiary civilization

Employment figures:

  • Primary sector: 10%
  • Secondary sector: 20%
  • Tertiary sector: 70%

The primary one and secondary sector are subjected to more and more automation and the need at workers sink. But the need in the tertiary sector rises. We are here in the today's industrial company and the society of the future, a service company. Nowadays it came in the tertiary sector to a so enormous rise that one began these to partition, then has itself the sector formed, which is concerned mainly with information.

Literature


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