A steam plow is agricultural equipment in the center 19. Century one invented.
It acts thereby around the mechanization of the plow before exclusively with muscle power (humans, animal) was moved.
A steam plow set able to work consisted mostly of two Lokomobilen (self-propelled steam engine), plow locomotive mentioned, which were first vertically, later only horizontal under the steam boiler arranged rope hoist equipped with one, as well as pertinent tilting plow, one crew car, 2 water cars and a crew, consisting of up to 12 men.
With steam plows by means of the rope hoists the plow was pulled over the field. The plow locomotives moved only over the ways at the edge of field, that so-called Vorgewende. On the plow sat at the beginning of 2 men, a steering wheel and an assistant for using and tilting the plow.
The Lokomobilen were however very heavy contrary to modern agricultural tractors. Driving on of the field for direct pulling of the plow, as today with tractors usual, was not possible therefore due to the condition (deepness) of the European culture soils. On the more load-carrying prairie soils in America there were however often also the so-called steam tractors, thus Lokomobilen, which were developed for direct pulling of tillage implements or trailers.
English engineer John Fowler developed the so-called Zweimaschinensystem into the 1850er years, with which one Lokomobile each at each end of field stands. Each machine pulled the tilting plow with its hoist alternating over the field. Only by this development the steam plow began its triumphant advance by the whole world.
The rope reeling device, which made the horizontal installation for the hoist possible, was developed, beside other inventions around the steam plow technology, by max of Eyth.
Plows happened as follows. The machine on their end of the field the plow was, signaled with a whistle of the Dampfpfeife the readiness. Whereupon the other machine continued to drive forward a piece and began to pull the plow over the field. The rope of the first machine remained connected - decoupled by the drive - with the plow, thus the rope was unwound and pulled together with the plow on the other hand end of the field. There arrived the machinist of the pulling machine stopped the push pull cable and the plow for plowing in the other direction was tilted. The design of the tilting plow made a turning of the plow redundant. Afterwards the procedure began again, this time in the other direction.
At the beginning of the steam plowing there were also a machine systems, which got along with only one, at the beginning of not even self-propelled Dampflokomobile and instead of the second machine guide rollers and so-called anchor cars used. In addition the Lokomobile had to be equipped with 2 hoists however. The procedure was very pedantic and labor intensive, why it could not become generally accepted.
The capital-intensive sets ruled in West Germany not in the possession of the farmers to usually separate itself by independent entrepreneurs or cooperatives were operated, who accomplished a plowing on behalf. The farmers had to furnish for it certain own contributions to so e.g. make the water and coals available necessary for the enterprise of the steam engines. On East German goods, e.g. in Pommern or East Prussia there were also enterprises, which own steam-plow-corrodes in enterprise had.
Well-known manufacturers of steam plow sets were the companies Fowler, A. Heucke, Kemna, Ottomeyer
The steam plow culture ended in Germany only in the 70's 20. Century. One plowed already starting from approximately 1920 hardly still with steam plows, however the steam engines remained during moorland cultivation (e.g. in the Ems country) still for a very long time into Betrieb.Die company Ottomeyer in bath Pyrmont developed 1950 to moorland cultivation a einscharigen low plow, which reached an operating depth to 2,15m. This so-called Kuhlpflug, type "giant" had a furrow wheel of 4m diameter and on the opposite side a track assembly, in order not to sink in the moorland. By means of this plow 2 became after that. World war in the Ems country large moorland surfaces in sand mixing culture soils transforms. The "giant" could be pulled only by in each case 2 strong steam engines on each side. These very modern steam engines had already for instance 500PS per machine, so that on a side for instance 1000PS pulled on the Pfug.
Moorland cultivation by means of steam strength ended not because of the technology, but, because due to rising yields in the agriculture the further development was no longer necessary from boggy soils to the securing of food supply of the population. Also one recognized increasingly the ecological meaning of the moorlands and sought the remaining moorland surfaces under nature protection to place.
A complete steam plow set with 2 machines and a 5-scharigen tilting plow is set up in the German agriculture museum in high home. Left to the agriculture museum
The gigantic Kuhlpflug giant stands with the pertinent machines in the moorland museum Meppen, large Hesepe in Ems-landsees for this the report from www.moormuseum.de
Max of EythRichard Toepffer
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