A stamp is a usually rectangular, often Postwertzeichen, which is printed on paper and for the payment of the transport of mails (or other achievements of the post office) serves. In addition the stamp is stuck by the sender on the letter and cancelled by the carrying post office by means of a postmark.
Before the first official stamp of the world was spent 1840, there were numerous forerunners. Thus the tenant that created Paris city post office, Jean Jacques Renouard de Villayer, already 1653 the Billet de haven , a stamp-similar fee strip of paper. This strip had to be fastened in the absence of an adhesive surface with clammy ones or thread to the letter. No copy of these Billets is today received to more.
Also in Great Britain there were comparable forerunners. Starting from 1680 the system of a uniform price for restaurant post office with freeing by marks, developed of London penny of post office of the buyers William Dockwra and Robert Murray, it was so successful that the Duke OF York saw its postal monopoly in danger. On its complaint London penny of post office had to give their business up after only two years; it was integrated into the general post office Office. Some the triangular stamps (English triangular postmarks) London penny of post office are received in archives, four copies are in private possession to be.
At the beginning 19. Century were there in some cities city covers so mentioned, which can be regarded as forerunners of printed stamps on envelopes. On Sardinien there was for example 1818 a post office paper provided with a stamp (Carta postale bollata), British newspapers settled reply cards was likewise already franked around 1821. As first complete things are considered the 1838 in the Australian Sydney spent type character sheets.
The philosophy of the invention of the stamp was to have drawn in the letter postage no more from the receiver but by the sender. Thus the first "Prepaid system" (Vorherzahlung and afterwards used) was created. In addition with it a simplification and a lowering of the letter postage were connected, so that an exchange of letters was reserved no longer only rich persons.
Already 1836 made the Austrian Laurenz Koschier out loaf oh the suggestion of the introduction from stamps to the simplification of the postal service for the Austrian government. The Scottish bookseller James Chalmers submitted 1838 a similar suggestion. Sir Rowland Hill, which was entrusted by the British government 1835 with the reformation of the postal service, took up this suggestion probably and into its post office reform referred. It is considered thereby as an author of the stamp.
The first adhesive stamp became to 6. May 1840 after the suggestions the kingdom united by Rowland Hill in given change. One calls the value to a penny in collecting tank circles One penny of Black. It is considered as the first stamp of the world.
Rowland Hill was responsible also for the motive of the first two stamps. For the organization several thousand drafts were submitted, which were rejected without exception by it. The design cribbed itself Rowland from Hill therefore from an intending coin from the year 1837, which particularly pleased it. The value to a penny carries haven-guesses/advises the queen Victoria on black reason, the value to two pence on blue reason. The Stecher of the first stamps was Henry Corbald. With the pressure printering Perkins, Bacon Petch were entrusted.
After the expenditure of the first two stamps of the world other countries followed already briefly. 1841 and 1842 appeared in the USA some restaurant marks. 1843 appeared further stamps in Brazil (Ochsenaugen) and in both Swiss the cantons Zurich and Geneva (double Geneva). The first German stamp was the black Einser, which was published on 1 November 1849 by the Kingdom of Bavaria. 1850 followed the German States of Hanover, Prussia, Saxonia and Schleswig-Holstein and 1851 bathing. The first Austrian stamp was published on 1 June 1850. It had also for Liechtenstein validity.
Soon also new kinds of stamp developed as for example in Austria 1851 the first newspaper marks of the world. As the first special mark of the world one is usually regarded in April 1871 on the occasion of the opening of the first railway line in Peru spent stamp. But not all historians support this opinion (see: ). Nevertheless one can say that ever more was recognized the advertising effectiveness by stamps.
See also list of the stamp first editions
Major item: Philatelie
By those racing fast propagation of the stamp spread also the Philatelie ever more. The term Philatelist was coined/shaped in the year 1864 by the French collecting tank Georges Herpin. It meant translates its that from state loads is taxfree" from the Greek "friend. Although this word describes the collecting passion of the Philatelisten only conceivablly badly, it became generally accepted in nearly all languages.
Stamps are nowadays common as collecting objects far. First one collected the small Postwertzeichen from the day's mail only from fun and used her for example for pasting lamp screens, which nearly always destroyed the collecting objects. Only slowly some people began themselves to concern with the stamps more exactly. For the collecting tank at that time it was natural and also possible to put on general collections so mentioned. This means that the Philatelist took up all stamps of the world to its collection. This would be nowadays inconceivable with the mass of the different issues of stamps.
With the time numerous aids for the Philatelisten developed. In the year 1860 the first stamp albums appeared. Already one year later, the first forerunners of the today's stamp catalogs originated in to 1861. In the year 1862 it came to the expenditure of the first philatelic technical periodicals. It concerns thereby The Monthly Advertiser, which appeared to the stamp for the first time in the native country on 15 December 1862. The stamp magazines promoted above all the exchange of stamps between the Philatelisten. In addition they reported worth knowing one the Philatelie on the New editions of the whole world and informed the collecting tanks about everything.
Beside the new aids for the Philatelisten also ever more stamp associations and meetings developed particularly for the Philatelisten. Already from the year 1856 meetings of Philatelisten are well-known in the USA. In the year 1866 it came there to the establishment of the Excelsior Stamp Association, the first stamp association of the world.
The rising number of philatelic associations led to numerous unions. In Germany this is today the federation of German Philatelisten, in Austria the federation of Austrian Philatelistenvereine.
Major item: Post office falsification
The rapid propagation of the stamp did not only have positive accompaniments. Ever more counterfeiter recognized the lucrative business of stamp falsifications, the post office falsifications in such a way specified.
Already briefly after the introduction of the first stamp to 6. May 1840 in Great Britain the first complete falsifications of stamps emerged. Beside these complete falsifications there were however also numerous partial falsifications of post office-valid stamps. This means that only parts of a genuine stamp were changed by their post office value to increase. To them for example the color change by chemical means as well as the manipulation of the Wertziffern belong, in order to imitate stamps with higher nominal values.
Also stamps already used were often again used, as from two (or several) used pieces in laborious manual work an unused stamp was together-tinkered. One tried to remove the feather/spring course or the postmark by chemical means. In addition one knew stamps, by which only a small part was provided with a postmark, together with an original mark uses, which covers exactly this part. Already early postal administrations met most diverse protection devices, in order to protect their stamps against falsifications. The oldest protection-took someone's measurements against post office falsifications is the water-mark. It was used already on recommending Rowland Hills with the first stamps of the world.
Some countries used a fiber paper for their stamps. With this special kind of paper the paper pulp (often differently colored) silk thread flakes were added, which became later visible in the paper. With some issues of stamps into the still wet paper pulp a colored silk thread was embedded. One finds these preventive measures for example with the issues of stamps of the German States of Bavaria and as well as in Switzerland. Colored paper should likewise make falsifying more difficult. If the paper is only frontlaterally colored, one speaks of colored paper. One finds this preventive measure for example with the first stamps Bayerns.
In Austria one provided the stamp paper with shining lacquer strips. This should a removing from postmarks, in order to be able, strongly make more difficult to use the stamps again. The lacquer strips partly dissolved with the mark picture in the water (or other liquids).