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The Snijders Oomen Nonverbale intelligence test (SON) is an individual test for the investigation of the intelligence of children, which without use more spoken (nonverbal) or written language can be accomplished. This means that the tester and the test person must read neither nor be able to write. In addition no certain language is necessary for the solution of the tasks of test.

History

The first version appeared 1943 and was originally intended for the investigation of children. 1958 were revised, extended the test and both and standardized for and hearing children at the age of 3-17 years (SON-"´58). 1975 appeared the SSON (stared, to 1975) for children at the age of 7-17 years and the infant SON (Snijders & Snijders Oomen, 1975) for children at the age of 2 -7 years. 1980 the authors a new edition of the SON considered `to 58, arrived however to the conclusion to compile a complete revised version of the SON"´58 and the SSON. The complete designation revised new test reads thus SON-R 5 -17. "R "stands thereby for the revision and the numbers indicates the age limits of the standardisation. A revision of an intelligence test is necessary in certain time intervals, since both the standardisation and the data can be related to the and validity by changes in the society. Thus for example the achievements of comparable age groups increase with nonverbalen intelligence tests within 10 years by approx. 2-3 IQ points. This is among other things because of changes in instruction, to a risen level of education of the population and an improved soziokulturellen environment. In addition in the last decades the composition of the population changed, among other things by the increase of foreigners (Allochthone). The current revision combines the advantages of the two earlier versions (SSON & SON `58): - The variety in the material and the tasks of the SON `58, since it consists to a large extent of action tests, which serve the active test person for the behavior observation. - The multiple choice tests of the SSON

After critical analysis of the previous SON tests the following Subtesttypen for the SON-R was selected: - Tests for abstract thinking test for concrete thinking test for spatial thinking NEW: Perzeptionstests, since these are related to many intelligence tests and exhibit a high correlation to their results

Memory and creativity tests were considered not with. Thus memory achievement is regarded as a precondition for the function of intelligence, however no actual kernel function of it would be. In addition the connection of creativity and intelligence is not sufficiently clarified.

Test

Test types

1. Test for abstract thinking

With the tests for abstract thinking relations between terms are used, which are not bound at space and time and therefore "abstractly "are called

Example: "Vehicles "car, course, bicycle"… HOWEVER: Pedestrians do not have a concrete purchase

The task for the test person consists here of from which offered test material derive an order principle

Subtests: "Categories "+ "analogies "

2. Test for concrete thinking

The task of the tests for concrete thinking is it to manufacture on the reality referred spatial-temporal connections between objects

Subtests: "Situations "+ "picture stories

3. Test for spatial thinking

Here the person who can be tested must manufacture a relationship between parts of a figure, similarly the tests for concrete thinking.

Subtests: "Mosaics "+ "indication samples "

4. Perzeptionstest

Perzeptionstests test the perception ability.

Subtest: "Search pictures "

To each type of test 2 Subtests should be provided, which did not succeed however with the Perzeptionstest. Thus thus 7 Subtests are present with the SON-R.

Subtests

Subtest 1: "Categories "(test for abstract thinking) a multiple choice test, with which 3 designs of objects are submitted to the test person. They must select the objects, which belong to the category first 3 from 5 possible answers.

Difficulty theory: 1. Degree of abstraction of the Items takes zu2. Acceptability of the wrong alternatives increases

Subtest 2: "Mosaics "(test for spatial thinking) an action test, with which different given mosaic samples with small squares to be after-put to have. The squares have here different forms and colors.

Difficulty theory: 1. Type of the offered Quadrate2. Measure of the asymmetry to after-add of the Mosaikmuster3. Number of the trespasses beyond the border within a sample

Subtest 3: "Indication sample "(test for spatial thinking) an action test, with which the test person an interrupted line sample with a pencil must be completed, so that the sample goes through.

Difficulty theory: 1. Measure of the asymmetry of the Musters2. Number of running back lines within the Musters3. Extent of alternations of the Musters4. Number of overlaps in the Muster5. Number of the lines from those a sample besteht6. Extent, to a sample not phasisch the ist7. Size of the omission in the sample

Subtest 4: "Situations "(test for concrete thinking) a multiple choice test, with which the test person gets the design of a situation submitted, in which in or several parts are missing. The test person must select now from a set of alternatives the illustration (EN), which complete the situation logically.

Difficulty theory: 1. Number of the missing parts of the Situation2. Acceptability of the wrong Alternativen3. Complexity of the situation

Subtest 5: "Analogies "(test for abstract thinking) a multiple choice test, with which a geometrical figure (A-term) changes (B-term) will and which must test person the principle of the change recognize and even to another figure (C-term) apply (D-term).

Difficulty theory: 1. Complexity of the Transformation2. Number of made Transformationen3. Number of the basis elements, from those the A-term besteht4. Extent of the difference between A and C-Term5. Attractiveness of the wrong alternatives

Subtest 6: "Picture stories "(test for concrete thinking) an action test, with which the test person must bring a number of photo maps, which result in a history, into which correct sequence.

Difficulty theory: 1. Complexity of the Geschichte2. Number of parts of the Geschichte3. Number of small cards, from which a history is compound

Subtest 7: "Search pictures "(Perzeptionstest) an action test, with which the test person must find and with the finger circle a search object that is hidden within some designs.

According to the difficulty theory the Items was divided in 9-11 difficulty stages and to 2 and/or 3 series (A, B, C) 9-11 Items were provided, which are almost identical from the rising difficulty. After each Item here positive and/or negative feedback is given to the test person.

Adaptive test procedure

In that adaptive test procedures of the SON-R 5 - 17 is tested the test person in 2, and/or 3 rows. As soon as in a row 2 errors are made, to the next row one changes over and one begins with the last Item of the previous row minus a Items. The advantages this test procedure are: 1. The number of the Items and concomitantly the operating time become reduziert.2. Test frustration becomes by the adapted level verringert.3. Since the Items, which goes beyond the efficiency of the test person, is decreased, there is Items turned out less.

Standardisation

The definition of the standardisation population reads: "The inhabitants of the Netherlands of same age, which at least one year in the Netherlands resident and not to a large extent of body or mentally handicapped are. "

The SON-R possesses a uniform standardisation for hearing and deaf persons contrary to the SON"´58 and SSON. Were examined thereby 1350 children at the age by 6-14 years in the Netherlands. By age group 150, of it 75 girls and 75 boys were tested. With the drawing of the sample the following steps can be differentiated: 1. Organization according to Unterrichtsniveau2. Organization according to Landesteilen3. Selection of Schulen4. Selection of pupils at the schools

1. Organization according to UnterrichtsniveauDer first and most important step concerned the distribution of the test persons, by age group and sex, over the different instruction types.

2. Organization according to regions: The Netherlands in regions (west, south and north/east the Netherlands) one divided. By region became, proportionally to the number of the inhabitants, who determine number of pupils who can be tested by age group, sex and instruction level.

3. Selection of school primary schools: 3 municipalities per region special school: a LOM and a MLK school per region vocational schools: or two schools a resuming instruction generally forming per instruction area: three schools per instruction area

4. Selection of the pupils to school for the standardisation is important it that the different age groups are homogeneous in view to the actual age. By age group as starting point for it x.5 was selected years (x years; 6 months; 0 days). Deviations from more than 2 months concerning this ideal age were as far as possible avoided, by in such trap a pupil of other schools of the same type were examined.

30 schools refused participating in the investigation, which possibly led to of the sample. A replacement by other schools had the consequence that among the spare pupils relatively too little foreign children and too many children of parents with a high occupation level were.


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