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» Economics » Electricity » Topics begins with R » Rule energy

Page modified: Wednesday, July 13, 2011 12:01:18

The rule energy ensures the supply of the consumers with sufficient electricity in sufficient quality with unexpected events in electricity mains. In addition energy reserves are to the network carrier at the disposal, can which be activated differently fast.


Rule zone

The Federal Republic of Germany is divided in four rule zones, in which in each case a network carrier has the responsibility for electricity mains. In Germany altogether 7000 megawatts of positive rule achievement and 5500 megawatts of negative rule achievement are reproached. The costs of it amount to about 40% of the entire transmission network payment.

Switzerland has only one rule zone, while Austria is divided in three zones. There is one for east Austria, one for Tirol and a further for Vorarlberg. The Vorarlberger rule zone is closely connected with from Baden-Wuerttemberg.

The costs of the supply of rule energy can be substantial. Depending upon supply situation in electricity mains can be computed for one megawatt hour up to 1500 "€ by the power suppliers.

Power reserve

If the expected power demand does not correspond to the expected performance, the deviation must be compensated. This can be caused both by the side of the Leistungserbringer (e.g. due to prognosis errors, thus deviations of the actual value from the yield prognosis with wind energy plants or by incidents with conventional main power stations) and also with the achievement takers (e.g. large consumer switches off unexpectedly). These deviations can lead thus to a positive or to a negative deviation, which must become balanced by an appropriate power reserve.

Primary regulation

The primary rule energy stabilized if necessary automatically the respective each power supply firm in the European data link must make 2% available of its momentary production within 30 seconds as primary rule reserve. In addition the momentary frequency is compared with the resting frequency by 50 cycles per second. In the case of a deviation from 200 MHz the demanded 2% are fully exhausted. With 100 MHz only 1% are demanded. If the deviation smaller 20 MHz is not takes place activation of the primary regulation. The power stations must increase and/or reduce and these up to some minutes to hold be able the power output within 30 seconds. To the activation of the primary regulation the secondary regulation comes to each power station of which is primaryrulable, places under normal conditions 5% of its maximum gross achievement as primary rule reserve to the order.

Secondary regulation

If rule energy in a rule zone is needed for up to 15 minutes, one speaks of the secondary regulation.

Minute reserve

Also with the minute reserve between negative and positive rule energy one differentiates. The positive minute reserve is taken out of the power stations, which run under secondary regulation. That pump-fed power stations or gas turbines can be. Around the mains fluctuations to compensate to be able the power stations must be able to change their achievement with gradients of at least 2% its maximum power (800MW= 16 MW/min). It is also possible to take large industrielle energy customers from the net to if that were agreed upon before. With the negative minute reserve additional consumers are brought to the net, in order to diminish energy points. The supply at minute reserve must correspond to the unforeseeable fluctuation within the minute range.

Procurement of rule energy

The procurement of rule energy takes place via the operators from transmission networks. A bidding procedure is to be accomplished, which is discrimination-free and transparency ("§ 22 exp. 2 EnWG). The German operators of transmission networks furnished an Internet platform, over which starting from July 2006 the common advertisement is to be completed for the advertisement of rule energy under

See also:

  • UCTE
  • Power station management

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