The Rorschachtest (vulgo ink-spot test, actually: Rorschach Formdeuteversuch) is a pseudoscientific psychoanalytisches test procedure, for which Hermann Rorschach developed its own personality theory and which was connected later with the acceptance of the Freud school. It belonged to the so-called projektiven tests and is used by analysts, in order to seize the entire personality pro gangs.
The Rorschachtest was published 1923 by Swiss psychiatrist Hermann Rorschach, after before already some other attempts had failed to pull from folding pictures of conclusions about the personality. Rorschach came to development of its form interpreting procedure into contact with the psychoanalysis Sigmund Freuds, which investigates the role of the unconscious one (often falsely called "Unterbewusstes"). In the 1930er and 1940er years found the test in Europe and in the United States far spreading. From years on John E tried to standardize the 1970er. Exner the procedure, from which there was v. A. in the USA several large "schools", (CS - "Comprehensive system"). In Europe the standard work of Ewald Bohm applies as reference.
The test consists of 10 boards with particularly prepared ink-spot samples. There is world-wide nearly a dozen parallel series, most not in the trade available. To avoid psychologists put an influence of the test to value on it that these are not shown in the public, in order through such anticipations (besides often wrong information circulates, for instance in the Internet or in "test breaker books"). The boards are shown in a certain order, which test person asked, what sees them here. The psychologist points out that it does not give "correct" or "wrong" answers. While the test person regards the boards, it notes expressions, the handling of the map as well as response times.
The evaluation refers to three main aspects:
The Rorschachtest is disputed for different reasons. The ink-spot pictures are A priori insignificantly, therefore the interpretation of the form interpreting attempts is coined/shaped by the analyst by its subjective impressions and prejudices. According to opinion of the critics the form interpreting attempt in the best case can give referring to aspects to the personality.
Users state, the evaluation by specialists is safe and reliable. The Rorschachtest can represent many ranges of the personality, whom other psychological tests could not seize. In addition it is to a large extent falsification safe. This estimate is not supported by scientific investigations. The problem of the and validity lacking the American John E tried to begegenen. Exner by standardisation that of the interpretations.
The Rorschachtest is considered as one of the most well-known and most common psychological tests, and he emerges again and again in films. It is nearly always wrongly explained.
Users warn of the common opinion that one can seize a whole complex personality or a serious illness with the interpretation of only one answer. If not literal minutes of all 10 boards with Nachbefragung and response times are present, the test is not evaluable.
The answers are interpreted after their position in the succession, particularly after perception, in addition, contentwise criteria as well as numerous further, usually formal rules.