Prekarisierung or rare (of precarious lat. - fr. ; by please attains; revocably, with difficulty) the increase designates the process of the increase of precarious work relations in the acquisition work contracts limited by jobs with small job security, low wages, part-time work, and protection against dismissal lacking, i.e. Precarious work relations is economically and historically in demarcation intended for the normal employer-employee relationship. The ever more strongly growing group of employees in precarious work relations is designated in the meantime frequently also than Prekariat (similar to the term Proletariat).
The wages from precarious work relations are not frequently able, which living costs of the employee evt and. to secure its members. Only in the highly industrialized countries with established social systems, in which the normal employer-employee relationship is prevailing, its decrease can be understood as Prekarisierung.
The Fordistic employer-employee relationship offers not only insurance to the employed persons against the loss of the wages, like continuation of wage payment in the medical case, unemployed person and old age pension insurance, but also collective regulations, for social security, like professional associations, health insurance companies as well as regulations for the organization of the occupation, e.g. industrial safety, work councils, remuneration after collective agreements. Within all ranges to the economy securities for the persons employed, to trade unions, exist participation organs, protection against dismissal, compensation, control of the work time, fixed paid vacation among other things precarious work relations are e.g. characterised by the absence of such elements and/or by low and uncertain incomes. They are called also atypical employer-employee relationships.
Since the employee only little influence on its situation have, no safe, look further ahead estimate meet can and only a unsatisfactory social and pertaining to labour law protection enjoy, threaten material poverty, social loss as well as a pessimistic view. Beyond that the tendency that the totalsocial presentness from the equilibrium turns out, exists in particular a mass consciousness of uncertainty develops, Politikverdrossenheit increases and moral values less acknowledgment finds.
In the sociology the term Prekarisierung is applicable also to all life-lay aspects, which go beyond the directly economic mechanisms.
An atypical employer-employee relationship is characterized by the instability of the job, low income, missing protection regulations as well as missing measures, in order to avoid social Ausgrenzung.
Atypical employer-employee relationships make for example in Austria 1 Mil. of 2.5 Mil. Person employed out. The legals form are among other things
The portion of such employer-employee relationships of the dependent occupation increases in the Federal Republic of Germany in relation to the normal employer-employee relationships since beginning of the 70's and again strengthened in all-German country since the turn of the century.
Normal employer-employee relationship means an unlimited full time employer-employee relationship liable to social security in this context. Since the number of the normal employer-employee relationships went only in the last years back, Prekarisierung can be understood since short also as displacement of the normal employer-employee relationship by precarious work relations. Is to be proceeded from a next to each other of precarious and secured work relations. Also at the criterion of the income height Prekarisierung for West Germany/Germany can be occupied: Since 1980 have the number of those, which work to less than 75% of the average income in full time increased by nearly 400,000, while the total number that sank at the same time full time employing in West Germany by 1.4 million. Also the portion of the poverty incomes (less than 50% of an average income) with full time persons employed increased.
According to data of the statistic federal office in Germany the number in mini jobs of the working rose in the year 2004 around 400,000. In addition come a significant increase of part-time job, considerable shortening or the complete cancellation of the Christmas benefit and over-as fixed in the tariff extra pay as well as an acceptance of employer-employee relationships secured by collective agreements. All these factors affect themselves in the opinion many experts wage-lowering and accelerate the decrease of secured long-term conditions of employment.
By the Deregulierung at the job market, the demand for flexibility of the work times and the work place and national regulations, which plan shortening of social security benefits, if reasonable jobs are rejected, increase the number of precarious employer-employee relationships constantly. Frequently as reason for this increase also the neoliberale globalization is called.
In the past the Prekarisierung was regarded frequently as problem of marginalisierten groups of societies such as foreigners, homeless people and unqualified employees. These would be due to their situation in a downward spiral, by which the following in each case employer-employee relationship is more with difficulty, socially less outstanding and more badly recompensed than the preceding. In the meantime the feature reached also the central layers.
Of it particularly concerned is the service sector, because many employees without unionized protection are here. It can general be stated that jobs are affected by women more frequently by Prekarisierung than such of men. Humans, who behave accordingly a certain seem to be less this danger suspended than member of sexual minorities so mentioned (towards that minorities). Workers with handicap again are rather affected by Prekarisierung as non-disableds so mentioned. Also Migranten, in particular the so-called Sans of paper, are particularly endangered since they are informed rarely about their rights, it not to intersperse can or partly illegaly work. On this background they are used of numerous employers gladly as cheap and little against-constant workers.
After Pierre Bourdieu meets the Prekarisierung related to the year 2000 not only marginalisierte groups of societies, but increasingly also such also before times secured incomes. This tendency still strengthened in the meantime. Thus in Germany for example in the welfare organisations more and more temporally limited work contracts are locked. Parts of the offers for example the senior mechanisms are converted into independent organizations like non-profit limited companies gGmbH, in which a worse social security are carried out and lower wages are paid. Public mechanisms are denationalized. Large-scale enterprises page likewise parts of the enterprise out. The employees are partly continued to employ to dismiss or under more unfavorable conditions and/or transferred into qualifying measures financed at short notice, which qualified in the long run for a large portion in unemployment or less and remunerated very short term occupation flow.
This development concerns both unskilled forces and skilled workers as well as increasingly member of the earlier so-called central layers. This kind of Prekarisierung covers not all characteristics, because for short time the social security is ensured. It concerns here however conditions of employment, which are so unstable that the concerning are frequently forced to take up atypical employer-employee relationships. In this connection frequently the term of the two-third company is used, which appears already outdated in the meantime, since in many industrialized countries less than two thirds of humans are sufficiently secured.
From the view of employers precarious employer-employee relationships can be favourable, motivate for example there them the coworkers by the intensified competition and the possibility of the dismissal and guarantee low wages.
As examples of precarious work relations are among other things called:
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