As if designates one pyrogen those materials, which work inflammatory, derived from the Greek word Pyros = fire, whereby the term in different connections is used.
In physics and chemistry he means as much as "flame-forming" and arises in the surrounding field of pyrotechnics.
In the medicine Pyrogene are the materials, which can produce fever with parenteral gift.
Among the Pyrogenen molecular connections can be ranked such as Lipopolysaccharide (bacterium Endotoxine), in addition, particles, like rubber abrasion of injection bottles and microscopic plastic particles. The following exogenous Pyrogen kinds are differentiated:
- Endotoxine of gramnegativer bacteria (Lipopolysaccharide of the bacteria diaphragm with high heat resistance) - components of grampositiver Bakteriene
- are formed in particular by Myxoviren and have a small heat resistance
- Metal connections in elastomers, rubber abrasion
The proof takes place via the rabbit test or Limulus test, also briefly LAL test mentioned. For animal protection reasons the LAL test is to be preferred, whereby the rabbit test is still prescribed by national pharmacopeias. Alternatively at present test systems with human blood cells are examined as spare method. Here the examination takes place on (e.g. Pyrocheck).
The rabbit test becomes as follows after pH. Eur. accomplished: 1 to 3 day before the main examination in the so-called preliminary test a pyrogenfreie isotonische saline solution (10 ml/kg kg) is injected and the process of the is determined. Couches no deviations (under 0,6 "°C) forwards, in the main examination three rabbits a test solution is injected. It takes place the determination and the comparison of the 10 and 40 minutes before and 3 hours after the injection. The test substance corresponds to the examination and is pyrogenfrei, if with three animals the sum of the individual values is not larger than 1.15 "°C.
been based on the coagulation of the and Endotoxinen of certain bacteria occurring in the blood of the arrow tail cancer (limulus polyphemus). This test is for instance 100mal more sensitively than the rabbit test.
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