Which community exists between the Chinese wall, the cover of the sixtinischen chapel, the moon-landing of Apollo 11, the olympic plays and There is the results of successful projects. Projects are unique extensive projects for the solution of complex tasks, with the help of a team. Special organization forms (project organization) and proceedings (project management) are used.
Projects have certain characteristics with those to be simply examined can whether the designation is in individual cases justified "project ". A project lies only then forwards if it the following characteristics exhibits:
Due to these project characteristics a higher risk than with exists cases of routine with each project. Execution required by projects therefore its own project organization and the use of methods Projektmanagements.Nur by the organization of a project is ensured that
Under project organization all organization forms are therefore summarized, which are suitable for the accomplishment of complex, singular tasks with specific achievement, date and cost goals.
Fundamental several tasks are to be prepared at the project organization:
It was shown that "the traditional "organization forms for the accomplishment of tasks of project, whose number and meaning increased strongly are not sufficient. The classical line organization obstructs the direct co-operation of specialists and can thereby delays in project progress cause. The multi-line organization promotes the specialization, creates however problems during the allocationallocation allocation. The summary of persons from different specialist areas and rank levels in the collegial organization creates already good conditions, however the problem of sufficient project resources and clear project responsibility does not solve satisfyingly.
Projects need an efficient communication structure and make the necessary integration possible of different divisions. The project organization forms must be completely from the existing line organization of the enterprise extracted therefore partly or. (Lit.: Frese, 1992, P. 2104)
It worked satisfactorily to subdivide a project organization roughly into three areas of responsibility and giving up. This is the direction of the project, which is responsible for the entire operational management of the project, the project team, which takes over the actual work on the project, and which steering committee, which makes last valid decisions as a highest committee, can determine for example project success or break the project off. With complex projects this is naturally subdivided in subunits, but the basic structure is usually usually alike.
The organizational unit of the direction of the project is responsible for operational planning and controlling of the project. The authority of the project manager can be very different however; they are enough from the bare passing on of instructions and the collection of the feedbacks (project secretariat) up to the full costing, personal and result responsibility. Apart from the direction of the project by a person there are also project lines, which decide as a committee by the majority or unanimously.
To the tasks to the direction of the project belong in particular planning, control, date monitoring, cost control and delivery to the client.
Complex projects are subdivided into subprojects, which have for their part a project manager. Frequently also project companies are created, which have only the task to accomplish a project. Their managing director is then the overall project leader. Simple projects are led however by a project manager easily personnel.
Summarized one can say that a project manager is responsible for the reaching of the given aims of the project. It must lead the project in such a way that the given achievement is reached and the planned dates and costs is kept.
The correct composition of the project team is important for the success of the project. Project members are connected with different areas of responsibility and giving up in a partnership atmosphere for purposeful working. With the education of a project group different factors of influence, like the different specialized technical of the members or the ability for the co-operation of the members, must be considered.
The steering committee (also: Steering element circle) is usually occupied by members of the decision levels by client and contractor. For example the steering element circle from the Minister, the responsible undersecretary of state, that can for the project responsible person department manager, the responsible member of the board of the contractor with a public project, who exist technical director and the project manager. In smaller projects in the industry are here usually the managing director of the client and a high-ranking selling coworker (regional leader, key account manager) of the contractor. The task of the steering committee is it to make if necessary legally obligatory agreements like date re-assessments to decide cost corrections and solutions from problems to which are not solved on execution layer.
There are five forms the project organization. These basic forms can be varied and/or combined to combinations.
At the line project organization no independent project organization is furnished. The project is integrated into the given organizational structure.
The staff line project organization is suitable particularly for projects with small extent, small risks and small innovation degree.
The matrix project organization is suitable particularly with projects, with which the co-ordination expenditure is too high for a staff project organization. In addition it is suitable by the flexible dispatching by personnel resources for the parallel execution of several projects.
The pure project organization is suitable particularly for extensive projects with high strategic meaning for the enterprise.
The organization form of the project company plans the organizational and the legal of the project organization in relation to the basis organization.
The selection of the suitable organization form depends on the Unternehmenskultur. The management system and the project organization must fit. Further it is to be judged necessarily the development of the individual project characteristics as well as the project environment.
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