The principle of territoriality (also territorial principle called) concerns a question of the application of the law, concerns themselves thus with the question, which right to which persons when and at which place is applicable. Generally says the principle of territoriality that all persons of the sovereignty and the laws of the state are subjected, on whose territory it in each case is. The principle of territoriality can also determine, which political rule at a place is used, for example in the language politics.
The so-called forms the contrast to it.
The fact that a state can affect legal its own citizens and arrange the social and social with one another legal accordingly and must appears plausible. Already in earlier times a member of a trunk applied also than for the right and the customs of this trunk subjected in most cultures. This so-called ties thus at the person, while the principle of territoriality ties to an area, on which a right application finds.
Problems result if a state wants to affect persons, who are not its citizens, but the Rechssubjekte of another state is.
In particular in the criminal law the question about the right which can be used always arises during foreign contact. Which right applies in exterritorialem ordering (ships in international waters, airplanes over international waters, embassy buildings), to military member in the Auslandeinsatzt, to diplomats, in the
With cases with foreign contact it requires regulations which is to find right application. Such cases of collision are regulated among other things by international private law and the international civil proceeding right.
In Switzerland the principle of territoriality is used particularly in the language politics. The language liberty is ensured in Swiss Federal Constitution, but the iurisdiction recognizes the kantonalen authorities the right too, which traditional linguistic composition of the country to consider (principle of territoriality). The cantons and the municipalities can seize therefore measures, in order to receive the delivered borders of the language areas and their homogeneity, even if thereby the liberty of the particular is limited to use its native language.
Practically this means that it in most areas of Switzerland only a recognized language for handling the authorities, to which Gerichtswesen gives, and to which public schools. Only in few districts and municipalities along the language borders exists a right the language within these ranges freely to select. Swiss the principle of territoriality does not have influence on the use of the languages within the other private or public sectors, in the economy, in the newspapers or in the culture.
The principle of territoriality is an important contribution to the language peace in Switzerland and by all parties is generally supported. There are problems with its application particularly in the following areas:
- French-German language border in the cantons Berne and Freiburg
- Italienischsprachige of areas with strong Zuwanderung from German Switzerland (region Locarno in the Tessin, the Bergell in grey federations)
- In many areas concerned not at all by the principle of territoriality protected is. The linguistic integration of German-language is often limited to the children the Primarschulalter - if at all a Roman school is present.
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