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» Economics » Globalization criticism » Topics begins with P » Pierre Bourdieu

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Pierre Felix Bourdieu [] (* 1 August 1930 in Denguin, Atlantiques; "† 23 January 2002 in Paris) was one of the most renowned French sociologists 20. Century.


In Denguin geb. the Bourdieu came out rather "simple "conditions. His father Albert Bourdieu was a farmer and late post office employees, its nut/mother Bourdieu, born Duhau, housewife. It visited there "the de Pau "and changed for 1948 to the rennomierte "edge of Louis putting "to Paris. Bourdieu studied the in Paris in the speciality philosophy to the normal and reached 1954.

After the academic conclusion it accepted first a place as a teacher. it, justified during its employment as a soldier in the Algeria war, undertook 1958-1960 in the Kabylei in northern Algeria field research for the culture of the Berber and with their results its Reputation as a sociologist. Since 1981 Bourdieu had a chair at the de France. Since 1985 it was Director of the Centre de Sociologie (CSE) at the de France and the striking width unit of the EN Sciences Sociales in Paris. Bourdieu was also, particularly in later years, a political intellectual with sense for symbolic gestures: admits became its solidarizing with striker railway workers on a workshop meeting in refines de Lyon on 13 December 1995. In the year 1998 it supported the unemployed person movement in France. Bourdieu died in the year 2002 at a cancer illness.

From 1962 to 1983 it was married with Marie Claire Brizard. Bourdieu had three children: Bourdieu, Emmanuel Bourdieu, Laurent Bourdieu.


Its sociological research, mostly in the everyday life life verwurzelt, were predominantly empirically oriented and can to the culture sociology be assigned. Tying at the Strukturalismus Bourdieu tried to connect subjective factors with objective conditions. Science-theoretically it represented among other things the abolition of dualism of subjectivism and objectivism, between idealism and materialism. Also to the medieval Universalienstreit Bourdieu took a mediating position between nominalism and realism.

Bourdieu developed its theoretical terms including the experiences of individuals. It used guidance terms such as Habitus, social area, social field and capital. All these in the sociology and economics used terms continued to develop it, so that they result in a new empirically justified sociological theory, which is of great importance in the today's sociological discourses in the synopsis and frequently "theory of practice "one calls.

The culture theory Bourdieus compares interactions of the everyday life life with a play. The individuals possess differently many potentials of different kind, which they can use and partly transform: economic capital, social capital, symbolic capital and cultural capital and/or education capital. Hereunder applies: "And everyone plays according to the height of its chips. "So the acquisition of cultural capital can be used for example for the increase of the economic capital. Important here the relationship from economic capital to cultural capital is for the structuring of a social field. In the field power (with Bourdieu the dominant class) face each other here for example on side the intellectual ones (high cultural capital in relation to the economic capital) and the Industriellen and entrepreneur (high economic capital in relation to the cultural capital). Certain positions in the field are linked with certain "thinking, perception and action patterns" thus a Habitus, over which individuals retroact again on social fields. Bourdieu represented thus neither a Strukturdeterminismus still another individualistischen beginning.

In its Hauptwerk ""Bourdieu the term Distinktionsgewinn for the successful penetration of a new prevailing taste and/or life-style coins/shapes the fine differences as means in the fight for social positions. These culture fights between the social classes take place in a so-called area of the life-styles.

After Bourdieu there are various delimitations, among other things by unconscious internal-light factors, for the human liberty illusions, by socio-economic structures, historical conditions, sex, nationality and world view. However each humans have an individual scope of action, which is the larger, within his borders are the more complex the society organized. Only on this limited background there is to social change and innovation.

Scientific forerunners Bourdieus were in particular Durkheim, max of webers and Karl Marx. Its social Epistemologie is affected of Durkheim. It used like these the term "of the social fact "and divides the basic insight into the meaning of the culture and social anthropology for the sociology. With weber connected it the inequality discourse, which orients itself at the subjectively aligned Begriffstrias class (sociology) /Stand/Partei. By Marx he took over parts of the objectively aligned concepts class, class warfare and capital, which he extended beyond the economic aspects very strongly. Friedrich Nietz "genealogy of the moral "stood with its discussion of the relationship between the aristocracy and "the simple people "godfather.

Bourdieus scientific complete work is characterised by high complexity, there it not only different science systems, but a multiplicity of again konnotierten conceptualnesses interconnects at the same time.

Admits was Bourdieu besides as politically engaged intellectual, which turned against the dominant elite and the Neoliberalismus. It described the task of the new social movements with the term "of the economic Alphabetisierung ". In its last Lebensjahren Bourdieu of the globalization-critical movement was close. He was joint founder today of the organization Attac acting world-wide.

Empirical research

Despite its sophisticated social theory Bourdieu was an empirically working sociologist. It used qualitative and quantitative methods of the empirical social research. In the work "the misery of the world "he worked particularly with qualitative interviews. Around a field analysis to accomplish it used the mathematical procedure of the so-called correspondence analysis with kategoriale variables in a two-dimensional area to be often located. Particularly in its later work "homo academicus "this is a procedure frequently used by it. It uses the results of its field research as points of reference also with the Berbern, for example in its late work the male rule.

Here some examples of results of its empirical work:

  • It showed that despite the formal freedom of election in questions of the aesthetic taste, artistic preferences in France (e.g. classical music, skirt, chanson) correlate strongly with ("cultural ") the class affiliation.
  • It proved - everyday observations bringing in - that refinement of the language represent such as accent, grammar, discussion and style a substantial factor in the social mobility (e.g. with the acquisition of a better paid and high-evaluated occupation).
  • He called the education dynamics released by education politics and unemployment "inflation of the education conclusions ", and/or "education expansion ". Graduations lose thereby to value and also the graduates from lower layers have bad possibilities of converting this capital appropriately (see education paradoxes)
  • By the increasing neoliberale globalization atypical employer-employee relationships became the rule. This Prekarisierung meets not only marginalisierte groups of societies, but increasingly also such with (still) secured income. The organized the is a component of the neoliberalen hegemony against each other. "The structural force "of the competition is to be given up to favour of recognizing the common interests.

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