The Pankreas (gr. pan = everything, kreas = the meat) or the pancreas is a gland organ of humans and the higher animals lying crosswise in the Oberbauch, who produce digesting enzymes and hormones.
The Pankreas is approx. 14-18 cm long and 65-75 g a heavy, wedge-shaped built organ, which is divided into irregular small cloths. It is appropriate in the Retroperitonealraum, thus behind the peritoneum, between stomach and the large belly containers (Aorta and lower Hohlvene) on height 2. Lendenwirbelknochens and stands in close relationship with the duodenum, which covers the Pankreaskopf. It is hardly breath relocatable.
The pancreas divided into
Due to its function as digesting gland the Pankreas possesses one or more remark courses (tierartlich different), which together with main bile duct coming from liver and Gallenblase (Ductus choledochus) or close this in a collection - which so-called Papilla duodeni major (also Vater Papille) - into the duodenum flow. The main remark course (Ductus pancreaticus, Wirsung course) is about 2 mm far and takes up the short leading from the senkrechten of supplies. Usually a further Pankreasgang is present, which Ductus pancreaticus accessorius, which flows over the Papilla duodeni minor into the duodenum.
As exokrine gland the Pankreas is a purely serous gland and the most important digesting gland of humans. It produces daily approx. 1.5 l secretion. Their Acinarzellen becomes lively by the hormones Sekretin and Pankreozymin (= Cholezystokinin) for the delivery of the digesting juice (also called Pankreassaft). The composition of the Pankreassekrets depends on the kind of the taken up food. It contains the preliminary stages of protein-splitting enzymes (Trypsinogen, Chymotrypsinogen, Carboxylpeptidase), the sugar-splitting enzyme a-Amylase and Lipase, an enzyme for Fettspaltung. Many enzymes are present with production in the gland in an inactive form. In order to avoid a self digesting of the organ, they become only effective at the effect place (the small intestine).
Apart from this exokrinen gland function by the endokrinen gland portion also hormones are delivered directly in the blood: Approximately 5% of the cells are summarized and as Langerhans islands are thus designated These are distributed over the whole Pankreas, mainly however over the body and the tail of the Pankreas. They consist of langerhansschen cells and are responsible for the production of the Pankreashormone, whereby in the A-cells Glucagon, the B-cells insulin, which D-cells Somatostatin as well as the PP-cells the Pancreas Poly Peptid are synthesized. Altogether about 1 million islands are in a healthy Pankreas.Als endokrine gland are container-rich the Pankreas!
The prehistory and the physical investigation findings devoted already referring to being present a Pankreaserkrankung.Zur recognition of a Pankreatitis the laboratory-chemical determination of the Lipase in the blood worked. Alternatively the Amylase in the serum can be determined. It is not so specific and sensitive however. For the recognition of tumors of the pancreas picture-giving procedures should like the ultrasonic, the Computertomografie, which is used Magnetresonanztomografie as well as the ERCP. As useful tumor markers the approx. worked 19-9. Also Pankreaspseudozysten, Pankreassteine or Pankreasverkalkungen can be recognized best with the above picture-giving procedures.
Alcohol - Gastrin - diabetes mellitus - flexible Transgastri Peritoneoskopie - salivary gland - remaining self-secretion rate - digesting
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