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The Pankreas (gr. pan = everything, kreas = the meat) or the pancreas is a gland organ of humans and the higher animals lying crosswise in the Oberbauch, who produce digesting enzymes and hormones.

Anatomical situation and structure

The Pankreas is approx. 14-18 cm long and 65-75 g a heavy, wedge-shaped built organ, which is divided into irregular small cloths. It is appropriate in the Retroperitonealraum, thus behind the peritoneum, between stomach and the large belly containers (Aorta and lower Hohlvene) on height 2. Lendenwirbelknochens and stands in close relationship with the duodenum, which covers the Pankreaskopf. It is hardly breath relocatable.

With embryos develops itself pancreas from two entodermalen buds duodenum, thus front intestine, whereby itself the front in the ventralen Mesenterium in next proximity to bile duct, which forms rear in the for dorsalen Mesenterium, which is thus called Mesoduodenum here. The rear plant grows as Pankreasschwanz further into the Mesogastrium forwards, which is taken off to the left within this range with the 90"°-Drehung of the stomach around its longitudinal axle and then with its back - before times the left back - to the rear body wall puts on itself, which leads finally together with the formation of the Bursa omentalis to the fact that both - originally left-sided viscerale lining of the Pankreas and parietale lining of the left body wall - merge with one another. Thus the Pankreas lies thus first within the body cave and comes retroperitoneal to only secondarily lie. From the front plant of the Pankreas develops in the rest of its Processus uncinatus.

The pancreas divided into

  • Head (Caput) as the thickest part of the pancreas, on the right of the spinal column,
  • Body (corpus) and
  • Tail (Cauda), which reaches up to the spleen.

Due to its function as digesting gland the Pankreas possesses one or more remark courses (tierartlich different), which together with main bile duct coming from liver and Gallenblase (Ductus choledochus) or close this in a collection - which so-called Papilla duodeni major (also Vater Papille) - into the duodenum flow. The main remark course (Ductus pancreaticus, Wirsung course) is about 2 mm far and takes up the short leading from the senkrechten of supplies. Usually a further Pankreasgang is present, which Ductus pancreaticus accessorius, which flows over the Papilla duodeni minor into the duodenum.

Embryonale development of the courses of remark gland: The main remark course is formed for the rear pancreas plant from the distal portion - thus the portion more removed from the intestine pipe - and by the entire course of the front plant. Directly into the intestine pipe flowing the portion - the proximal part - which remains for front plant soldered (obliteriert) in the further consequence or than Ductus pancreaticus accessorius to exist.

Function

The Pankreas as exokrine gland

As exokrine gland the Pankreas is a purely serous gland and the most important digesting gland of humans. It produces daily approx. 1.5 l secretion. Their Acinarzellen becomes lively by the hormones Sekretin and Pankreozymin (= Cholezystokinin) for the delivery of the digesting juice (also called Pankreassaft). The composition of the Pankreassekrets depends on the kind of the taken up food. It contains the preliminary stages of protein-splitting enzymes (Trypsinogen, Chymotrypsinogen, Carboxylpeptidase), the sugar-splitting enzyme a-Amylase and Lipase, an enzyme for Fettspaltung. Many enzymes are present with production in the gland in an inactive form. In order to avoid a self digesting of the organ, they become only effective at the effect place (the small intestine).

The Pankreas as endokrine gland

Apart from this exokrinen gland function by the endokrinen gland portion also hormones are delivered directly in the blood: Approximately 5% of the cells are summarized and as Langerhans islands are thus designated These are distributed over the whole Pankreas, mainly however over the body and the tail of the Pankreas. They consist of langerhansschen cells and are responsible for the production of the Pankreashormone, whereby in the A-cells Glucagon, the B-cells insulin, which D-cells Somatostatin as well as the PP-cells the Pancreas Poly Peptid are synthesized. Altogether about 1 million islands are in a healthy Pankreas.Als endokrine gland are container-rich the Pankreas!

Illnesses

  • acute and chronic Pankreatitis
  • Pankreaskarzinom
  • Pankreaspseudozysten
  • Pankreasinsuffizienz (endokrin and/or exokrin)
  • False formations of the Gangsystems
  • Pankreasegel
  • Mukoviszidose
  • Mumps, often at the adult age

Research methods

The prehistory and the physical investigation findings devoted already referring to being present a Pankreaserkrankung.Zur recognition of a Pankreatitis the laboratory-chemical determination of the Lipase in the blood worked. Alternatively the Amylase in the serum can be determined. It is not so specific and sensitive however. For the recognition of tumors of the pancreas picture-giving procedures should like the ultrasonic, the Computertomografie, which is used Magnetresonanztomografie as well as the ERCP. As useful tumor markers the approx. worked 19-9. Also Pankreaspseudozysten, Pankreassteine or Pankreasverkalkungen can be recognized best with the above picture-giving procedures.

Literature

  • Markus W.; UHL, Waldemar; Malfertheiner, Peter:
Pankreaserkrankungen. Acute Pankreatitis, chronic Pankreatitis, Tumore of the Pankreas; Basel: More meagerly, 22004; ISBN 3-8055-7460-6

See also

Alcohol - Gastrin - diabetes mellitus - flexible Transgastri Peritoneoskopie - salivary gland - remaining self-secretion rate - digesting

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