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» Economics » Explosive » Topics begins with O » Oktogen

Page modified: Wednesday, July 13, 2011 15:44:09

Oktogen is the trivial name of Cyclotetramethylentetranitramin, an explosive with the sum formula C4H8N8O8 and a mol mass of 296,156 g/mol. In the US-American linguistic usage it is called Homocyclonite and/or HMX (High Melting explosive).

The substance was isolated 1942 in Germany as by-product of the technical synthesis of the Hexogens (KA-procedure), characterized chemically and examined blow up-technically, whereby it did not show advantages opposite the Hexogen. It was separated about at the same time and examined similarly in the USA as by-product of the identical, new brook man procedure.

Further names of the explosive: beta HMX, LX 14-0, HW 4;

Physical characteristics

It existed in four polymorphen forms of those only \ the beta form practical meaning possesses. It forms white crystals, Fp 280"°C, D = 1.90 g/cm The steam pressure with 20"°C is 4.4 10-14 mbar. The solubility in water with 20 "°C amounts to 5 mg/l.

The data concerning the detonation speed are different, it values around 9100 m/s with a press density by D = 1.84 g/cm are indicated. The explosion warmth of a Hexogen/Oktogen mixture is 5540 J/g, it develops 0.9085 l/g incineration gases (normal volumes). Remaining LOCK projection: 480 cm3, sensitivity to impact: 7.4 Nm

Chemical characteristics

Oktogen is a hetero-cyclic eight-ring. Its stability opposite sulfuric acid and against caustic soda solution is more largely than those of the Hexogens, supposed due to smaller solubility, so that on it separation methods were developed. The solubility in acetone is many smaller than those of the Hexogens, whereby the separation of the Hexogens is possible by Kristallation fractionated by the Oktogen. To the Umkristallation Dimethylsulfoxid or Nitromethan is suitable.

Toxicology of Nitraminen

Hexogen does not have nitrite effects, it slowly by the Magen-Darm-Kanal and probably not at all from the skin is absorbed. The minimum lethal dose for rats (by oral) is 200 mg/kg. But still 50-100 mg/kg daily is stood 50 mg/kg daily by dogs some weeks by rats, long without blood change, something over exciting barness is only observed. During repeated effect of Hexogen (- dust) and/or of impurities of the production process it came with humans to convulsions, eye and skin provoking.

Over the toxicity of Oktogen nothing is well-known. It might have however similar central exciting and/or cramp-releasing effect as Hexogen.

Detonation speed

The detonation speed of the Oktogens is with approximately 9100m/s (to the comparison: TNT detonated approx. with 7000m/s) and is slightly higher thereby than from Hexogen (8500m/s).

Articles in category "Oktogen"

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