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» Economics » Political economy » Topics begins with N » North south conflict

Page modified: Wednesday, July 13, 2011 02:52:59

The term north south conflict one names the following closely which are connected conflicts:

  • the argument of earlier colonial powers with their colonies, than in these independence efforts flashed (1940-1975), see also decolonization
  • the economic conflict between the so-called industrialized countries and the developing countries, following on it: On the part of that developing countries the reproach is raised, the industrialized countries used its economic power to use in order to strengthen the dependence of the developing countries from them to, and/or cheap prices and wages to their favour. See in addition also Neokolonialismus and globalization.

The term is due to the fact that the majority of the industrialized countries and earlier colonial powers lie on the Northern Hemisphere of the earth, while the developing countries and earlier colonies are to be usually found in the Southern Hemisphere.

History of the north south conflict

Political decolonization

The north south conflict began in the 40's with the flashing independence efforts in the asiatic colonies of Great Britain, like Jordanian one, India etc. on it followed into, 60's and 70's 50's the wars of independence in Africa. Only at the beginning of the 80's was this process of political decolonization locked, today gives on the whole it only few and comparatively insignificant colonies. The cold war affected this process, since in several cases on the part of the USA and the USSR one tried to integrate again independent the states become into its block. Many of the new states joined however in the 60's the movement of the non-aligned states developed, which rejected each influencing control on the part of the east Western powers.

Economic north south conflict

The economical element emerged already briefly after the independence efforts of the earlier colonies. Many resources, above all raw materials such as oil, were still in the hands of colonial powers, which led in some cases to nationalizations, in other cases however the economic dependence of the colonies on their previous colonial powers further guaranteed.

The crucial element was however acting the multinational companies, to secure which used the favourable prices in the developing countries in many cases altogether (thus not only in the former colonies), in order itself cheap raw materials and cheap worker. These companies were usually in the industrialized countries resident, paged however certain ranges out into the developing countries, whereby this usually the ranges were, which are on the one hand labor intensive, on the other hand no special education requirements placed (e.g. the occupation of sewers for mode companies or picking Kaffeebohnen). It came again and again to conflicts because of the conditions of work, which were clearly usually under the level of the industrialized countries and included long work times, low wages and partial Kinderarbeit. Besides there were also ecological problems, for instance the contamination of the water of some rivers in Nigeria in some cases on the part of the oil companies, or the formation of agricultural Monokulturen.

A further problem is the diversification of the economy which is missing in many cases in the developing countries. Like that the primary and the tertiary sector (thus and services) are practically responsible for the whole resource of the countries in many cases, during which secondary sector, which industry is strongly underdeveloped. Thus it often comes to dependence of the economy of the developing countries on imported goods on industriellen products from the industrialized countries.

This phenomenon of the economic dependence of the developing countries on the multinational companies from the industrialized countries is named today the term Neokolonialismus (also Neoimperialismus), what refers to the economic exploitation of these countries, which resembles the conditions in the colonial age in various regard.

In some cases on the part of critical movements was tried to introduce standards for a "fair trade" (fair trade) these remained however usually edge features, which had little influence on the material conditions only.

Resistance and anti-globalization tendencies

Particularly for years active resistance against this economic exploitation moved the 1980er on the part of the multinational companies in the developing countries. In many countries high barriers for the settlement of foreign companies were set and/or tried, to promote by import restrictions the development of own industries. This was not successful always, yet there are countries as for instance South Korea, which had a strong development thrust by such measures. On the other hand many states block themselves to the advantages of the international trade by such measures.

Another element was arising the so-called globalization critics, who try with world-wide and local actions to make the population attentive on the phenomenon of the Neokolonialismus and on the negative accompaniments of the globalization.

It remains marking that the economic north south conflict did not lead so far to military conflicts. Many critics nevertheless see to the Neokolonialismus as one of the main causes for the reflashing of the terrorism into the 1990er years and in 21 beginning. Century.

See also: Colonialism, imperialism, Anglozentrismus

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