Versione di lingua italiana
Deutsch Sprachenversion
English language version
Choose language:

» Economics » National park in Germany » Topics begins with N » National park Schleswig Holsteini Wattenmeer

Page modified: Wednesday, July 13, 2011 23:36:21

The national park Schleswig Holsteini Wattenmeer was created on 1 October 1985 by the national park law from 22 July 1985. This concerns the largest national park in Germany. In the national park law it means:

The establishment of the national park serves for to the protection of the schleswig holsteinischen Wattenmeer and retaining its special characteristic, beauty and originalness. To be secured its species-rich planting and animal world is to be received and as unimpaired an operational sequence of the nature procedures as possible. Any interests of use are to be weighed with the protection purpose generally and in individual cases fairly. Since 1990 it is also of the UNESCO recognized biosphere reservation.

The area of the national park

The national park covers the schleswig holsteinische coastal region of the North Sea of the in the south up to the Danish border in the north. Within the northern range (to for instance Amrum the national park border runs to the 12-Seemeilen-Linie, among them approximately on the 3-Seemeilen-Linie. The five nordfriesischen islands and the five large Halligen are excluded.

The area resident about 3200 animal and plant types, about which approx. 250 kinds occur exclusively in the salt meadows of the Wattenmeer. The area of the Wattenmeer is the bird-richest area of Central Europe. Over 2 million migratory birds on the eastAtlantic course way use the national park area to the rest, about 100,000 pairs breed in the park. Schollen, sea-tongues and herrings draw their children up in the area, equally live here sea-dogs, pig whales and cone seals.

The national park is divided in three zones, which correspond to different protection stages. Zone I forms thereby the strictest protection stage. It covers itself to a large extent the areas of the sea-dog banks, the breeding colonies kinds of sea-bird threatened by becoming extinct, places at those masses of migratory birds mausern as well as geomorphologically important areas with almost natural surface textures. In zone I are permitted Watt migrations, wheel migrations, riding and Kutschfahrten only on proven ways, which are hunt completely forbidden. South the Hindenburgdamms on the land side Sylts is completely impossible within the protected zone I a human use. In the zone I is among other things blue local and, a Zone II forms "a buffer zone in such a way specified "around the zone I around, for zone III forms the remaining surface of the national park.

The Wattenmeer - a singular habitat

The coast of the North Sea is unusually flat. The bottom of the sea drops partly only few centimeters per kilometer. Twice daily the tide carries sand, clay/tone and silt into the area of the Wattenmeer. Dunes mark the coast, which the wind from the fine grains of sand from the exposed Watt develops.

The Wattenmeer is to the tropical rain forest the secondarymost productive ecological system - only this exceeds the Wattenmeer in alive biomass. In the Wattenmeer to finding ways of life cover flint algae, snails, worms, shells and shrimps. A typical inhabitant of the sand Watt is the Watt worm, which lives in an u-shaped tube under the Watt surface.

Up to 4000 animal and plant types are in the unusually food-rich habitat Wattenmeer specialized. On about 3200 occurring animal species about 250 exclusively lives that in the salt meadows of the Wattenmeer. The Wattenmeer is the bird-richest area of Central Europe.

Thus live for example fire geese of the Watt snails, which are to be found to hundredthousands on the Watt surface. In addition those about 180,000 birds counting Northwestern European fire goose population spends its Mauserzeit between July and September in the Wattenmeer. Also about 200,000 oath pensions spend here their Mauserzeit; about 1000 pairs of oath pensions use the Watt of the North Sea as breeding area. Most of it breed on the island Amrum.

The Wattenmeer rest area for breeding birds of nordischer countries, which corrode themselves here the fat reserves, is simultaneous, which need it for a successful brood. Thus appear itself in the entire Wattenmeer about 10-12 million wading birds, geese, ducks and sea gulls.

In the sand banks in the Wattenmeer sea-dogs are to be observed and to the Wattenmeer border salt meadows, sand beaches and dunes. On the salt meadows, which serve the and Seeschwalben as breeding area, the beach thistle and the Strandflieder flower in the summer. Most typical plant of the dunes is the beach grass, which fasten the dunes with their expanded root works.


To protect the Wattenmeer there were demands for the 1960er years. 1963 raised the protection station Wattenmeer this demand, starting from 1969 also the national association of hunting clubs.

The schleswig holsteinische national park was created 1985 as the third national park in Germany. 1986 pulled Lower Saxony and 1990 tight Hamburg. The which is the basis law was substantially amended in 17 December 1999.

Since 1990 the national park surfaces have additionally the status of a biosphere reservation, see to biosphere reservation Schleswig Holsteini Wattenmeer.

The national park is cared for in particular since May 1999 in co-operation with nature protection federations, in the range of the bird protection with the association Jordsand, by a full-time national park service, which employs approx. 20 established coworkers ("Ranger "). Partners of the national park service are the country Schleswig-Holstein (51%), the circles Dithmar and Nordfriesland, the WWF, NABU, association Jordsand, protection station Wattenmeer and the professional association of the Watt leaders (association de

Human use

In the national park live two humans on the Hallig all year round as well as three humans additionally in the summer (one on Tri, two on south case). On the national park 70 municipalities with approximately 290,000 inhabitants border.

The area of the park serves the tourism, the fishery, the oil promotion (oil field Mittelplate), the coastal protection, the Beweidung, the navigation, the air traffic, gravel and sand withdrawal, the shell breed and is militarily used.

Since mechanism of the national park among other things planning for a nuclear power station in the sand banks before the Hallig Hooge was stopped, is tested in the military test area of the Meldorfer bay since then neither bombs nor napalm, various Eindeichungen failed smaller than planned just like the dam between Pellworm and the mainland was not built.

The national park is to serve among other things the public work. In addition above all the sea-dog station in Friedrichskoog and the Multimar Watt forum are in furnished beside numerous information boards. Altogether come annually about six million holiday-maker and into the area,

Conflict-laden the coexistence of national park is on the one hand and fishery on the other hand. Drying falling ranges of the Wattenmeer are perfectly closed for the shell fishery since 1997. On 2.200 hectares still shells are fished, however no more game shells are angelandet.

Its largest endangerment experienced the park on 25 October 1998 with the average cargo ship of the Pallas before Amrum, with which 600 tons oil ran into the North Sea.

The park is to be explained as the world nature inheritance of the UNESCO, this meets locally however on substantial of resistances. According to a representative questioning from the year 2000 15 % the inhabitant Dithmarschens and Nordfrieslands feel personally reduced by the existence of the protected area. These 15 % criticize above all its reduced freedom of movement, the restriction of the fishery and criticize "nature are broken protected. "Questionings of tourists in the area result in however likewise that these endorse the existence of the protected area to the all-largest part (70-90 %).

Data and address of the national park administration

  • Size: 441,000 hectars = 4,410 km
  • Coastal length: 460 km
  • Total area: 441,000 hectars = 100% (of it Sublitoral: 300,000 hectars)
  • Surface zone 1:162.000 hectar = 37% (of it Sublitoral: 64,000 hectars)
  • Surface of the use-free zone (part of the zone 1): 12,500 hectars = 3% (of it Sublitoral: 3,500 hectars)
  • Surface whale protected area (part of the zone 2): 124,000 hectars = 28%

Address of the national park administration:

National office for the national park Schleswig Holsteini Watt
Palace garden 1
Tel. 04861/6160

Related links

Page cached: Tuesday, May 24, 2016 21:32:43
Valid XHTML 1.0!  Valid CSS!

Page copy protected against web site content infringement by Copyscape