Marketing (of English marketing: Marketing, public work or selling nature) offers a systematic beginning to organizations, in order decisions market and customer-orient to meet.

“Marketing is the function, which manufactures a communicative relationship with the market for the organization in a creative, productive and profitable way. “

While the sales are practice, marketing is the “selling theory” and meant first of all, as it gets an enterprise of its products into the market.

In a comprehensive sense, one understands the market-focused implementation of company targets and the adjustment of the entire enterprise at the market by marketing.

Colloquially marketing reduced to would who-bleach or activities.

Variety of the marketing definitions

In the year 1968 “the American marketing Association “(AMA) defines marketing as follows: “The planning process that

  • Conception,
  • Price strategy,
  • Graduation and
  • Distribution

of products and services, in order to reach exchange processes, which fulfill individual and organizational goals. “

(Original definition (in English): “Marketing is the process OF planning and executing the conception, pricing, graduation and distribution OF ideas, goods and services ton create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives. “)

This definition is general Lehrmeinung. Marketing is thus not another term for advertisement or sales.

An older definition describes marketing than a process in the economics and social structure, by which individuals and groups satisfy their needs and desires, by producing products and other things of value, offer and exchange with one another (see older paragraph term of Erich good mountain).

After Orbis restaurant economics 1989: “All measures of an enterprise, which are aligned to promote the paragraph. “This older is in as much also today still applicable as the elements marketing the enterprise serve to realize successful participation in the market happening by the reaching of the company targets. Also, Philip Kotler, an important US-American economist, defines marketing similarly: To satisfy “needs profitable. “

Heribert Meffert and Klaus baking house, two economists with a rather holistic beginning and strong purchase to the capital goods market, continue to seize marketing. Meffert particularly takes up the enterprise-far function marketing and defines: “The consciously market-focused guidance of the entire enterprise, which settles in planning, coordination, and control of all enterprise activities aligned to the current and potenziellen markets. “

Hereby, in particular, the motivation not only the customer-orientated creation of value ranges are meant for convincing achievement. In an enterprise, each coworker should be conscious over it who portion he personally for the satisfaction or the enthusiasm of the customer (see also: Recommendation marketing) to contribute can.

In newer publications marketing than management of comparative competition advantages are understood by the use of the marketing instruments. By comparative competition advantages (KKVs) one understands competition advantages in relation to the competition, which is from customer view important and perceptible and must from entrepreneur view durably and economically meaningfully is realized.

Andreas’s sharp and Bernd Schubert define marketing as follows: By marketing one understands planning to reach organization, execution, and control of all enterprise activities, which aim at, by a consistent adjustment of the own performance program at the desires of the customers the sales market-oriented company targets.

Historical development

The term “marketing “was used for the first time between 1905 and 1920 at US-American universities.

In Germany, the specialists spoke however into the 1960er years of “marketing “. Sales and advertisement are located in the center of the paragraph-political equipment.

An exception forms the investigation of Stackelbergs from the year 1939: Contrary to the price theory prevailing at that time, which from price and quantity proceeds as exclusive parameters of action with enterprises, it considered quality variations and selling politics for the first time.

The introduction of the today’s marketing term was accompanied by the change of the sales markets, made possible away by the seller’s market, in which the salesman can determine due to the lack of goods and services prices and conditions to a large extent, to a buyer’s market, in that the multiplicity at competitions ever more customer the choice whether they accept the offer at all.

The birth of marketing came into Germany with the invention of baking powder by Dr. Oetker. To the customer, for the first time, a product was offered by mass advertisement, which provided facilitation of work for it, by which it had however up to then not known that it needed it at all. Since the advancement continued to progress always by inventions of new Produktvarianten, the success of the offer is enough into the present inside.

On level marketing end of the 1960er/Anfang of the 1970er developed years by the structure of the first institute for marketing by Heribert Meffert at the William university in (Westphalia).

Marketing goals

The marketing conception is a total plan closed in itself and represents a core range of the guidance of an enterprise or an organization. As well as it covers marketing goals, marketing strategies and the operational conversion to concrete marketing-Massnahmen to marketing-mixes the progress control.

There a buyer’s market either very comprehensive or expressed specialized proceedings (see market segmenting) required, in the past different developments appeared independently. In it also nothing changed by the fact that in contrast to the times before the Internet the today’s markets are characterized by apparently extreme transparency of the market (keyword: to the competition “google “).

Strategic marketing goals can be: (Either horizontal/vertical diversification or specialization)

  • Examples of market penetration (penetration):
    • Increase in product use and brand loyalty at existing customers by CROSS Selling.
    • Production of past Nichtverwender
    • Production of new customers of competitors.
  • Examples of market exploitation (absorption):
    • Development of additional, spatial areas of distribution
    • Penetrate into other operating ranges
    • Orientation at new target groups.

From it Unterziele, for example within the ranges placement, result quality, shelf surface, contents of the commercial advertisement and the customer advertisement, etc. a formulation of goal could e.g. read: “We want to increase our market share in the above-ground construction of the Federal Republic in the next year of 3 to 5 percent “or “we plan the field service costs in Berlin within the next 6 months by 25 percent to lower. “

Apart from the pure result goals, like the kind and quantity of the sold products or the associated costs, also qualitative or informal process goals are to be considered. An important criterion for a good formulation of the goal is the Nachhaltbarkeit of the goal fulfillment: in general quantifiable sizes are meaningful only in some way. Indistinct process goals are completely unsuitable like e.g. “we want the satisfaction of our customers in the next year to increase. “

Also a process goal can be formulated accurately:

“We want to increase the product quality within the range of fast turning consumer goods in the next financial year with the help of an again furnished retailer Hotline so far that we reach customer complaint conditions of under 5 percent. In addition, a budget is intended of 100.000, – “€ per annum under the direction of Dr. with seat in Hanover. The results are to be put to the specialized division market communication quartalsweise at the disposal. “

Goals in marketing are to be formulated thus as just as detailed as within each technical guidance range.

Operational marketing goals e.g. concern:

  • Paragraph
  • Conversion (proceeds)
  • Market share
  • Amount covered
  • Bekanntheitsgrad
  • Image positioning
  • Branding (mark guidance).

Also, these goals can be formulated operational and should (after contents, extent and time).

Dual guidance concept

Often the question asks itself, where marketing has to stand in an operational structure. The so-called “binary guidance concept “shows marketing two fundamental functions has.

  1. apart from other functions like e.g. purchase and production on a hierarchical stage,
  2. in management

The Marketing is thus not only one of many branches of enterprise, but it becomes ever more “the top-priority case “. Therefore marketing is ever more important as market-focused management in the age of globalization.

Corporate Identity

The enterprise identity (Corporate Identity or briefly CI) with its three partial aspects Corporate Communication (CC), Corporate Design (CD) and Corporate Behaviour (CB) coins/shapes the uniform, concise appearance of the enterprise with outside and interior effect.

Interior effect:

  • The coworkers identify themselves with their enterprise. We feeling develops: the coworker of VOLKSWAGEN drives even e.g. ideal-proves a gulf and no Ford focus.

External effect:

  • The enterprise is outward uniformly presented. In addition belong operationally the business equipment with Logo, color, Schrifttypografie and layout defaults (Corporate Design) as well as one strategically closed as perceptible communication politics, with which the other elements marketing-mix the market participants are made accessible.

The communicated (Corporate Behaviour: in connection with the other components of the CI inward and outside) leads a conclusive and assertible adjustment of the behaviors of an organization to a clear and unmistakable market operational readiness level. If CI is stimmig, the enterprise appears more reliable.

See for this independent article advertisement and communication politics with its Unterartikeln.

Marketing topics in the overview

Classically marketing-mix the American Marketing Association

  • Product and/or achievement politics
  • Price strategy/contracting politics
  • Communication politics
  • Distribution politics (selling, logistics)

Common extension by important neighboring functions

  • Market study and public opinion poll
  • Balanced Scorecard
  • Quality management
  • Controlling as Marketingcontrolling
  • Fire management

Marketing adjustments

  • Consumer goods marketing (B2C)
  • Capital goods marketing (B2B)

Channel marketing Service marketing Participation marketing Marketing inward Non-profit marketing (e.g.: Politics marketing) Gender marketing

Newest research directions

  • Within the neuroeconomics, in order to measure the decision behavior objectively

See also


  • Kotler, Philip/Bliemel, Friedhelm: Marketing management. Analysis, planning and implementation. Poeschel, 10. Aufl. 2001, 1399 sides
  • Nieschlag, Robert/Dichtl, Hans: Marketing. Duncker & Humblot, 19. Aufl. 2002, 1349 sides
  • Meffert, Heribert: Marketing; Gabler publishing house 9. ; over work. and erw. Aufl. 2000. XXIV. ISBN 3-409-69017-4
  • Bruhn, Manfred: Marketing. Bases for study and practice. 7. over work. Aufl., Wiesbaden 2004.