Murray Newton Rothbard (* 2. March 1926; " 7 January 1995) was an American economist and a political philosopher. Besides it published however also comprehensive articles within the range of the science of history.
It was relevant Vordenker of the anarchokapitalistischen movement in the USA and the Libertarian party. As an economist it stood in the tradition of the Austrian school. Culturally it was conservatively adjusted and as a young man by the spirit of the American old right was affected.
Rothbard was born in New York town center, where he spent also the longest time of his life. His father David Rothbard, a chemist, came as a Jewish immigrant without means from a Polish Schtetl into the USA, assimilated themselves there however fast. Murray Rothbard was very much coined/shaped by liberals and individualistische thinking of its father. Over its youth Rothbard expressed that his father and he were only rights in a left liberal to communist environment.
Murray Rothbards ideas represent a synthesis from economics, political science, jurisprudence and the philosophy of the social sciences. Perhaps its work represents "the strongest and most refined final speech for the individualistischen Anarchismus in this century, if not even in the entire history of this special social philosophy ", as Norman P writes. Barry. Further its work is characterised by a very in-usual, spirit-rich and humorous style. '' Voucher desired
Rothbard argues, with reference to John curl, radically nature-legally. After his view each humans have by nature certain rights: Free speech, freedom of reunion, uninformativeness, freedom of contract, above all however the right to the own person and to the fruits of own work. The remarkable here is that Rothbard derives each of these rights from the natural right to property. It stands thereby in the tradition of the Stoa, the medieval Scholastik as well as the classical liberalism.
Besides Rothbards thinking from Ludwig von Mises' forms and from the specifically American finally tradition for praxeologischer analysis of the goods exchange.
Its Credo essentially consists of two axioms:
These two axioms are not discussed by Rothbard however. Here it is in any case open to attack, because the faith in absolute and natural rights is at least problematic. At the latest since Jeremy Benthams attacks on nature-legal thinking - Nonsense Upon Stilts (" gestelzter nonsense ") read its destroying judgement - we know that nature right theories with extreme restraint must be formulated, if they should be plausible in view of the reality.
We should not lose sight of the fact that the view gives, it natural rights, for over three hundred years will of course represent that there is however up to now still no satisfying answer to the question, what makes exactly one right a natural right and whether it at all rights gives, which were regarded over different historical epochs and different cultures away constantly as natural.
More interesting than Rothbards axiomatic dogma tables conditions are certainly the arguments, which it develops from it. It argues above all anti- paternalistisch: No requirement of a person to know better what uses another person and frommt , by it one recognizes. As typical for liberal living together the freiwillige exchange of goods and services is considered to it. It is to that extent only too consistent that it understands so-called "crimes without victims" like gambling, prostitution, pornography, sexual deviations, stretchers of a firearm and a drug consumption as nature-legally protected spheres.
Also the abortion belongs after its view to this range. The may be a human nature, even a person, this by Rothbard is not denied. If however the developed inadvertently or against the will of the woman (as for instance with a rape) and it does not want to deliver it, then it is not much more than one intruder and parasite, against which the pregnant woman can make the first Rothbard axiom valid. Here Rothbard is however inconsistent and this in two different regard: First of all it surveys that also the is protected by the first axiom. It is as Lockeaner strikingly against Lockes (nature-legal) to principle, the right has the task to protect" the innocent ones and to hold the aggressors in barriers "with self-defence inevitably secondly offends. '' Voucher desired the as aggressors, intruder and parasites not to regard however as innocent ones seems to almost place actual conditions on the head. '' Voucher desired
As embodiment of the Paternalismus Rothbard the state is considered. But the state is in its view not only a guardian of the citizens, but an unconcealed aggressor, by hurting constantly and in large yardstick the natural rights of the citizens. As examples Rothbard calls the military obligation recruiting, the taxation and the compulsory schooling among other things. The compulsory schooling produced systematically uniformity, undermines thereby the diversity and hurts just as systematically (natural) the parents right. In addition it puts a decision problem, which cannot solve these in principle to the state on: Is the education to be e.g. rather progressive or rather If parents are not in this question united, a considerable minority, perhaps even a majority in their interests is always hurt substantially. The taxation is nothing else as obligation or robbery, at best is it bad-paid farmhand shank. The military service is essentially Kidnapping, possibly even murder. If the representatives of the state of the view are that the state must be defended, then are they itself, as each citizen in its business also, to the market to turn and by appropriate offers persons enlist there.
Each State of, even a democratic condition state, hurts the natural, individual rights, since each state is in the long run a monopolyistic enforcement and force agency. The usual democratic procedures and the usual conditions are state institutions, which are always interpreted and used in the interest of the respective ruling powers. An effective protection of these rights can be caused and ensured only by a radical denationalization. This denationalization is also before public roads, the schools and universities, the police, which right natures (including the courts) and armed forces do not stop-make.
The Achilles' heel of the individualistischen Anarchismus might consist exactly of the fact that a community, which exists on the condition of the large number without a" fundamental Zwangsgewalt "cannot get along virtually. '' Voucher desired if Rothbards nature-legal axioms it applied, which would have humans thus actually natural rights, then followed from the fact not yet that these rights were also actually respected by all. If now the individuals united to protection combinations, the danger of a constant war between these combinations, a war would exist, with which again on injuries by rights would have to be counted. Remedy can create here obviously only a" fundamental Zwangsgewalt ", which is equipped with so superior power that it can smooth each internal controversy autoritativ and definitely. This Zwangsgewalt however is the state. '' Voucher desired that states again and again positive or natural rights (if there are such) it hurt, are probably inevitably. But we have the possibility of holding such injuries in barriers and of compensating the victims. Herein the difference between a democratic condition state and an autocratic arbitrariness state exists. '' Voucher desired
Regardless of this criticism it is not to be denied that the writings are immensely energizing Rothbards. '' Voucher desired
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