The Monroe effect (after Charles E. Munroe, therefore actually Munroe effect) refers to the partial focusing by explosion energy caused by a cavity or a cavity, which was cut in a piece explosive, a characteristic by a hollow charge is used.
The explosion energy is concentrated directly over the surface away set free (normally perpendicularly arranged to the surface), by figuration of the explosive the explosion energy in the hollow body. If the hollow body possesses the correct form (usually a cone), develops a high-speed plasma.
The effect is designated after Charles E. Monroe, which discovered it 1888. While its work with the Naval torpedo he noticed station in new haven in the United States that if a block gun cotton detonated also to in-marked name of the producer beside a metal plate, the letters into the plate cut themselves. If the letters were raised as relief over the remainder of the gun cotton, the letters rose likewise from the surface of the metal plate. 1910 discovered the German Egon Neumann that TNT with a conical recessing by a metal plate cut themselves, which was normally become baggy by the same quantity of the explosive only. However the military use of this effect was not used up to the Second World War, which was first application probably the British shaped-charge shell No. 68, which was used first in May 1940.
In modern military applications a Monroe effect Hohlladungssprengkopf knows as expected a solid steel armoring according to that 150 - 250 % diameters of the Sprengkopfes penetrieren. The modern group armoring or reactive armoring developed as counter measure to shaped-charge weapons reduces the effect somewhat.
In the civilian use shaped-charge bodies (so-called Schneidladung) are used, in order to cut steel bar carriers, e.g. in the case of the abort of old multistoried buildings.
This effect is well-known also as Misznay Schardin effect. It was examined by the explosive experts Misznay from Hungary and German Dr. Hubert crowd DIN, in order to develop more effective antitank mine for the Nazis. Although the Second World War ended, before their construction became usable, they and others continued their work.
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