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» Economics » Psychological test procedures » Topics begins with M » Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory

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The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) is the personality test most frequently used in the English linguistic area in the psychology. This test was created with the goal, in order to find personality disturbances, social problems and behavior disturbances with psychiatry patients. The test supplies information for the problem identification, diagnosis and preparation of a treatment pattern for the patient.

In addition the test was used for attitude tests and other non-clinical investigations, this is estimated controversially and is illegal in many cases.


The original MMPI was developed in hospitals at the University OF Minnesota and published for the first time 1942. The original authors of the MMPI were strong R. Hathaway (PhD) and J.C. McKinley (MD). The MMPI is protected by copyright and registered trade mark of the University OF Minnesota. With clinical application a fee must be paid in individual cases.

The version for adults, standardized at present, starting from 18 years, the MMPI-2, was published 1989, in addition there was at the beginning of of 2001 a revision with certain test components. The MMPI-2 covers 567 items (questions), and needs about 60 to 90 minutes for execution. There is a short form of the test, which of the first 370 items the total form MMPI-2 consists. Also there is a version for young people at the age from 14 to 18, the MMPI-A.

The MMPI is used in a wide range by investigations:

  • Penal jurisdiction and detention
  • Investigation of disturbances, as for instance Posttraumatisches_Stresssyndrom, depression and schizophrenia
  • Statement of suitable candidates for positions in safety areas with high risk, like e.g. employees in nuclear power plants, police officers, traffic pilots, fire-brigade, medicine and psychology student
  • Investigation of patients and definition of suitable treatment strategies, including chronic pain treatment
  • Selection of participants in programs for the substance abuse
  • Support during training and career planning
  • Before and family consultation

(Reference: This list originates from the English Wikipedia and not necessarily does not apply to European conditions)

Criticism and controversy points

Even if other personality tests are criticized more frequently such as Graphologie, Rorschachtest and the Myers Briggs type indicator than the MMPI, questions remain existing concerning the ethics and validity particularly in the not-clinical use of the MMPI.

Into the 1960er years the MMPI was just as often used in companies with employees and applicants as with psychiatry patients. The sociologist William H. Whyte as well as further critics regarded such tests than means, with which in large concerns for the center of the century a oppressives group thinking was created.

A report of a US office for the technology assessment of 1990 determines:

Into 1965 the senates Subcommittee on Constitutional Rights OF the Committee on the Judiciary, chaired by senator SAM Ervin, and the House Special Subcommittee on invasion OF Privacy OF the Committee on Government operation, chaired by Representative Cornelius E. Gallagher, hero hearings ton determine more whether the questions asked on psychological tests used by the Federal Government were unjustified invasion OF the respondent on' s psyche and private life. The Subcommittees thus investigated the validity OF thesis test and the due process issues involved in test administration. The reactions OF the press and public were very critical OF the of type OF questions asked on thesis psychological tests.

1966 brought the US senator a law request to Ervin around the application of the MMPI and further tests by government authorities to limit sharply, whereby he called these McCarthyismus (see McCarthy-%C3%84ra). Ervins request was rejected.

Annie Murphy Paul, a former editor-in-chief von Psychology Today, places firmly the fact that personality tests "often invalidly, unreliably and" is unfair. Others criticize that the MMPI certain demographic groups excessively "pathologisiere", in particular dte rodents and non--white pro gangs.

In innumerable successful legal proceedings it was argued that the application of the test represents a penetration into the with applicants and that no secured connection between test results and the work would give it.

See also

  • Psychologischer_Test
  • NEO PI-R


  • Congress OF the United States Office OF Technology Assessment. The Use OF Integrity test for Pre Employment Screening. (Pdf) September 1990. OTA-SET-442 NTIS order #PB91-107011.
  • Bennett D. "Against of type." Boston Globe, 12 September 2004.
  • Paul TO. The Cult OF Personality: How Personality test of acres leading US ton of Miseducate Our Children, Mismanage Our Companies, and Misunderstand Ourselves. Free press 2004. ISBN 0743243560.

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