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» Economics » Marketing instrument » Topics begins with M » Marketing-mix

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That marketing-mix represents a decision problem in the management economics. It describes the tuning of the operational marketing instruments among themselves. In addition, additionally a coordination with all functional areas of the enterprise is necessary. That marketing-mix is divided into the "4 P's" product, contracting (price), distribution and communication politics (in English all four terms begin with "P": Product, Price, Place, graduation).

In the meantime the "classical 4P-Ansatz" was extended by different authors by further "P " s. Thus today also partially personnel and Process in marketing-mix included. A further addition around so-called Physics stresses individual elements of the communication politics. Many, straight small ones and middle enterprises underestimate connection the process orientated and personnel-economical ranges in the customer production and - and rely falsely rather alone on its product knowledge.


The term marketing-mix leaves itself on a publication of Neil boards in the 30's 20. Century lead back.

To the strategic aspect marketing for the adjustment of the entire enterprise at the needs of the market different instruments from the marketing and management are assigned for operational execution in marketing. The combination of these means as if marketing-mix designation.

The classical 4 P

Product politics (Product)

See major items: Product politics

The products or services, which an enterprise offers, represent the core of the entire enterprise activities and form the basis each business Erfolgs.Die product politics cover all considerations, decisions and actions, which stand in direct connection with the combination and variation of the characteristics of the product or the service. For this count above all quality, marking, packing as well as product-accompanying services.

Two aspects are of special importance: Offer width and offer depth. Enterprises, which offer a broadly varied offer, are called also generalists. The offer depth however describes the different kinds and variations of a certain offer. One calls enterprises, which put their emphasis on a deep offer, generally specialist.

Contracting politics (Price)

See major items: Contracting politics

Under the contracting politics all contractual conditions (conditions) fall, which in connection with an offer. By this discounts, Boni, credits e.g. fall, in addition, supply and term of payment exact taken is thus the price strategy a part of the contracting politics. Since the price strategy represents the central element of the contracting politics, generally of the price and contracting politics is spoken, in order to carry for the special meaning of the price strategy calculation. The price strategy covers all decisions, which influence on the as well as the way of the price definition and - penetration have. As central aspect it can be held here that the price always depends on the market, which consists of the components offerers, Nachfrager and competitors. However also the cost side should not be neglected apart from inevitable orientation at the market, since enterprises are dependent to obtain with its products and achievements profit.

The two substantial organization possibilities for the entrepreneur regarding the price strategy are on the one hand the price level and on the other hand the price distinction.

Communication politics (graduation)

See major items: Communication politics

By the communication politics one understands a goal and measure decisions for the organization of all the product information concerned. The substantial instruments of the communication politics are advertisement, personal sales, Sponsoring, fairs, Events and public work (including the Corporate Identity).

Distribution politics (Place)

See major items: Distribution politics

Under the distribution politics all decisions and actions of the enterprise are met in connection with the way of a product from the manufacturer to the final consumer. The possibilities of the distribution politics are various. In the trade the question arises whether the products in a classical sales agency (POS, business) are sold or whether the commodity is brought directly to the customer (as e.g. with distributing houses, which send the commodity directly to the customer home). The different possibilities of the distribution are not mutually exclusive Frequently enterprises offer combinations or several possibilities parallel.

Further HP


See major items: Personnel policy

Particularly within the service range is the personnel of crucial importance.


See major items: Process management

Physics and further partial aspects

The Physics covers the outside appearance of a company. Like that are both the Corporate Identity and the optical feature of the coworkers and their vehicles part of the communication politics of an enterprise. A such lifting out within the classical marketing-mix corresponds to the stress also different elements of the management for certain target groups and industries, like e.g. "quality management" or "Stakeholder" for marketing overviews.


  • Boards, N.: The Concept OF the marketing mix
, in: Journal OF Advertising Research, No. 4/1964, P. 2-7.
  • Homburg, C./Krohmer, H.: 'Marketing management. '' Gabler publishing house, Wiesbaden 2003, ISBN 3409125159.
  • Kotler, P. /Bliemel, F.: Marketing management. Poeschel publishing house, Stuttgart, 2001, ISBN 379101689X.

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