Kochi (to 1996 Cochin) is been a city in the Federal State Kerala in the south of India, because of a Naturhafen of the The city has 604,751 inhabitants, the population centre altogether 1.444.958 (conditions: 1. January 2005). Thus Kochi is only the second largest city Keralas, but its largest population centre.
Kochi is appropriate for about 186 km in the southwest of India at the coast of the Arab sea, north of Thiruvananthapuram, the capital Keralas, and 361 km southwest from Bangalore. It belongs to the district Ernakulam of the Federal State Kerala.
The city extends over several the coast pre-aged islands and peninsulas. The most important quarters are away Kochi, Mattancherry (both are appropriate for Kochi peninsula mentioned on one likewise away), which artificially created island Willingdon as well as the islands Bolghatty, often as quarter regarded Vallarpadam and Vypeen, however also the sister city Ernakulam lain on the mainland, although them are administered separately from Kochi.
The climate in Kochi is tropical. The annual average temperature amounts to 27.2 degrees Celsius. By the situation at the sea the temperatures vary only slightly. The main rain time lasts from May to August during the southwest monsoon, however also the northeast monsoon brings quite productive precipitation from September to Decembers. The remaining time of the yearly is it drying. The total amount of precipitation of a yearly amounts to 3040 mm.
The origin of the name "Kochi "is not clearly clarified, the most usual theory is however that the name of "kochazhi "deduces itself, which means small lagoon on Malayalam "". Other theories mean that the city owes its name Chinese buyers or that the name of "kaci "(Malayalam: "Port ") comes.
The ascent Kochis began about 38 km with the destruction of the port that removed antique city Muziris (today Kodungallur) by a tide disaster in the year 1341. Evenly that tide created however also the harbor basin of Kochi. From now on the city developed to the most important port at the Indian west coast for the spice trade with China and the Near East.
1500, two years after the arrival of the Portuguese sailor Vasco there Gama in Calicut (the today's Kozhikode), landed its compatriot Pedro Cabral in the lagoon of Kochi. 1502 created the Portuguese their first commercial establishment in the city. They established one year after a fortress (away Manuel) - the first European fortress on the Indian Subkontinent. Vasco Gama died there 1524 in Kochi and was also buried there, until its mortal remnants were transferred 1539 to Lisbon. In the course of Portuguese colonial rule the native rulers were ever more entmachtet and made finally Vasallen of the Europeans.
Starting from 1653 the Dutchmen made the Portuguese serious competition and finally conquered the city in the year 1663. Among the new rulers the bloom time Kochis began. The extensive commercial network of the Netherlands east India company contributed considerably to the economic upswing.
1776 were devastated again Kochi of Hyder Ali, later by its son Tipu Sultan. Under the latter the city came temporarily to the Kingdom of Mysore.
1790 turned out for Kochi under British influence. By the English-Netherlands contract of 1814 it WAD-race Presidency attached and thus finally a component of the British colonial empire. The British poured Willingdon Iceland into the 1920er years up, in order to extend the port for the ocean navigation.
From 1947 to the integration into the Federal State created again after language borders Kerala 1956 was Kochi capital of the union state Cochin, as also the city was called at that time still official. 1996 received it a name in Malayalam and are called since then Kochi.
In addition, the population is predominantly hinduistisch, it lives many Christians (catholics, Thomas Christians and Protestanten) and Muslims, to smaller extent also Jains and Sikhs in the city. The Jewish municipality of the city, which has some few members however by the strong emigration to Israel only, is famous (see Cochin Jews).
The most important colloquial language is Malayalam. English of many one understands and one speaks. Besides it gives languages to speaker of the Tamil and many further, above all more dravidischer.
Away Kochi: The Franziskanerkirche (pc. Francis Church) is the oldest church of India built by Europeans. It was established 1503 from wood, to in the middle 16. Century however as building of stones renews. Here 1524 also Vasco were buried there Gama. Its gravestone is to be seen this very day there, although its Gebeine were transferred 1539 to Lisbon. Newer date is the Santa Cruz Basilika, 1902 likewise than catholic church delighted. At the north point of the peninsula away Kochi are the famous Chinese Fischer nets. They are already in 13. Century introduced by Chinese buyers by the Hofe Kublai Khans its. The heavy timber constructions, on which nets hang, are used particularly with flood. For their handling at least four men are needed.
Mattancherry: In this quarter lies in the center the 16. Century of the Portuguese builds Mattancherry palace, which was handed over to the Raja at that time of Cochin as gift. In response this granted extensive trade privileges to the Portuguese. The palace is put on around a Hindu temple. The dutchmen reconditioned and extended the building in 17. Century, why it admits also as Dutch palace (Dutch Palace) is. In Mattancherrys the 1568 established synagog, which was partly destroyed 1662 by the Portuguese, stand for Jewish quarter two years later however by the more tolerant Dutchmen were rebuilt. The inside is partly decorated with Chinese floor tiles.
Bolghatty Iceland: Main marriage worthyness of the island is the Netherlands Bolghatty palace of 1744. Confusing way it is called exactly like the Mattancherry palace often also Dutch palace (Dutch Palace).
Vypeen Iceland: Here the Portuguese fortress Palliport from that rises 16. Century.
The most important industries of the city are textile industry, shipbuilding, timber economy, fishing and the processing of coconuts. The tourism plays an increasingly important role. Of great importance one is also the export economy. On Willingdon Iceland are extensive harbor facilities, which make Kochi the most important port Keralas. In the city gives it in addition a base to the Indian navy.
The most important means of transport between the islands and the peninsulas are ferries. Willingdon Iceland is however by the Venduruthy Bridge with Ernakulam and connected to Kochi by the Palluruth Bridge with the peninsula away. From Ernakulam a good railway binding exists to the remainder of the country. There are two stations in Ernakulam: Ernakulam Junction and Ernakulam Town. For goods trains also a connection insists to the station Cochin Harbour on Willingdon Iceland. About 20 km outside of the city is an international airport.
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