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An intelligence test (IQ-test), is an instrument of the psychological diagnostics, which a measurement Konstruktes intelligence "operationalisierten" made possible. A numeric relative is assigned to the individual development of intelligence. By an appropriate standardisation (age, etc.) the results become comparable.

The intelligence quotient is thus the discrepancy quotient of the raw values to the average value in units of the standard deviation with an average value of 100.

IQ=100+15 \ cdot {x \ without x \ over s_ {x}} (HAWIE Hamburg change-over switch intelligence test)

IQ=100+10 \ cdot {x \ without x \ more over s_ {x}} (intelligence structure test IS after Amthauer)

The values of different IQ-tests are among themselves comparable due to the different distribution only by a Z-transform.


A IQ-test consists of several subranges with in each case several Items of different difficulty.


    • Verbal test (general knowledge, number after speaking, vocabulary test, computational thinking, general understanding, thing in common find)
    • Action test (picture-supplement, picture arranging, mosaic test, figure putting, number symbol test)
  • ARE 2000
    • verbal intelligence (sentence addition, analogies, thing in common)
    • numeric intelligence (arithmetic problems, Zahlenreihen, operational signs)
    • figurale intelligence (figure selection, cube giving, stencils up)
    • Memory, concluding thinking (Reasoning)
    • Extension module: fluids and crystallized intelligence (general factors)

Problem examples:

  • Analogies

House: Stairs = A) B bridges) Bank C) Ferry D) Water e) Air-lock

  • Zahlenreihen

9 6 18 21 7 4 12

  • Operational sign

20 3105=3380

Solutions: e)/15 (system: -3, x3, +3: 3, -3 etc.)/: , +

After the results of cattle man (to 2006, see indication of literature below) are also with the PISA studies to understand with TIMSS and with IGLU used test procedures as IQ-tests. The validity and of the PISA tests as measure of the general factor of intelligence are equivalent or even higher than with the tests stated above.


The authors of intelligence tests design their tests after implicit acceptance over this Konstrukt and/or following existing intelligence theories.

It can be assumed different intelligence tests seize different cutouts of the Konstruktes intelligence.

Some procedures cover the Konstrukt by very different Untertests/different Itemformen off (IST2000, UNTIL), while others take it off by very homogeneous however particularly representative Itemformen (mentally speed, stencil test).

Some procedures are in the collection of general intelligence conceived (model of the general factor of intelligence) during others (WIT, LPS) rather of the factors of intelligence individual at the specific development interested are particularly.


Contrary to personality tests usual intelligence tests reach usually a good Likewise the criterion validity and the validity are usually good related to school notes. This is because of the fact that the validity of the tests is conceived from the beginning thereafter which differences between pupils can be found high or lower-value general education at different school types. A test worked on a long-term basis above all therefore if school success with cutting off in IQ-tests correlates.

The forecast strength of intelligence tests is often not completely independent of the height of the test value. At very low or very high IQ-values the forecast strength (e.g. for occupation success) is usually somewhat larger than in the middle range.

The use of intelligence tests with the applicant selection, e.g. in the context of a Assessment center, has to always take place under supervision of a diploma psychologist, otherwise one the procedure can be contested.


Intelligence tests are calibrated separately after age groups, sex and graduations. 100 is thereby the respective average. This standardisation takes place separately in the individual countries. Landspreading comparisons are only reduced possible therefore. In particular in the USA the scale is more strongly spread to the upper end.

With the organization of an intelligence test the so-called cover effect is important. This means that very high IQ-values can be measured only inaccurately.


Critics express that IQ-tests are already not meaningful alone, because the Konstrukt intelligence, which is to be quantified, is not sufficient well defined. In addition so-called objective tests could seize in each case subranges its, which they are to measure. All of this subordinates however that the article, - intelligence - actually the assignable, objective existence, apart from the interest in its definition, is to be examined at all has. However there is no reference and no argument. "Quantifiable Abstraktum" the interest in its definition also always remains - for what reason as argument for the definition of intelligence as.

The effort of some authors and test technical designers, who are concerned with intelligence, culminates in the contradiction (s.o under: Construction), the test must try the Konstrukt intelligence as comprehensively and differentiated as possible to seize. Intelligence is already subordinated as Konstrukt, which one brought out. The spoken difficulty to be able to seize this designed Konstrukt intelligence like a found research article proves therefore as erschwindelt. Who transports such contradictions, wants - consciously or from unawareness - to suggest, it concern with intelligence evenly nevertheless separately from its definitions (its construction) an existing phenomenon, which by the constructions by adequate tests a natural - although in the dark various mysterious abstractions lying - existence was eingehaucht.

The logical operation for the regulation of "intelligence", subordinated with all IQ-tests, is the following: One assumes that intelligent achievements in certain measurable test achievements express themselves. This subordinates a tautological fragmentation of the term into a cause efficiency ratio resting in itself: One doubles intelligent achievements - generalizes from the need after measurability out, as abstract intelligence achievement - in their expression (certain measurable test achievements) and to these expressions allegedly underlying fortunes in addition - expressed in the IQ-value. G.W.F.Hegel, (work it clock coming tracing gift Bd.6) logic II, Kraft and S.172-179 by this arbitrary dismantling of intelligence in "ability and expression the same" becomes from by the test maintained, carefully invented criteria for the Konstrukt intelligence a measuring instrument for intelligence. To that extent the famous statement, intelligence meets is, which the IQ-test measures, each intelligence measurement to and leaves thus under the hand at all only intelligence as abstract article "becomes true". Certain ones intelligent achievements are contentwise not at all abstractly comparable - it is, the will for the location of abstract intelligence brings it exactly as what one wants to measure from certain practical interests, theoretically out (e.g. for the fine control of selection). On the way of testing it does not depend in detail then. This depends to a large extent on the personal taste of the tester and its ideological practice orientation ("speak-free", "mathematics-free", "environment-neutrally" etc.).

See also

  • Intelligence
  • Intelligence quotient
  • Stanford Binet test
  • Simon Binet test
  • Intelligence structure test
  • Flynn effect
  • High gift
  • Transmission of intelligence
  • DOCK



  • Cattle man, Heiner: What do international school achievement studies School achievements, pupil abilities, cognitive abilities, knowledge or general Psychological ones round-look 47 (2006) 69-86.
  • N.J. MacKintosh (1998). IQ and human Intelligence. Oxford: Oxford University press.
  • Stephen Jay Gould: Wrongly measured humans (1999) ISBN 3518281836.

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