Inzest (also Blutschande) designates the sexual intercourse between relatives close. All today's cultures know a Inzesttabu. The term is to distinguish from in-breeding, which is used in the animal and plant breeding as a common procedure for the stabilization of certain characteristics. The marriage ceremonies under close relatives in the European high aristocracy or in remote, rural areas, spread in former times, becomes likewise not as Inzest, but when social in-breeding designates.
Universally nowadays the sexual intercourse is rejected between physical brothers and sisters and parents and their children. It is forbidden in all today's cultures and after the laws of nearly all states. Other forms of the "Inzestes" are individual this only from the point of view or many cultures.
Sexual relations between cousins and cousin of first degree (common grandparents) is differently evaluated in different societies, then a cousin marriage is for example in most US Federal States, Korea, which the Philippines and in many Balkans countries forbidden and socially tabuisiert, while it applies in North Africa, in the eastern area and in south Asia as preferential form of the marriage. In some societies also the sexual intercourse between persons applies as Inzest. For distant relatives as for example cousin and cousin of second degree (common great-grandparents) exist a marriage obstacle in no country.
"Relationship" does not only forbid marriages, it can it also order. Like that the cross cousin marriage is often prescribed in master companies. It can be prescribed even the conjugal sexual intercourse between brothers and sisters, however only in high social position. Example are the Pharaonendynastien (historically e.g. the (304 v. Chr. - 30 v. Chr.), in antique Egypt, which prescribed the brothers and sisters marriage of the Pharao; this is regarded as result of the power centralization with matrilinearer succession from high priest inside with simultaneous a hereditary monarchy; always also ideological explanations in such case ("keeping clean of the blood" are sociologically predictable, "equalness",
Among the characteristic of a taboo also the active Ausgrenzung of the topic ranks. With the Inzest its occurrence is faded out, i.e. sexual intercourse between brothers and sisters or between parents and their children is not noticed, is not denied or is played down, if it does not go differently. In the further the children from a connection are regarded handicapped in far population circles in principle than, in order to carry out a mental demarcation opposite other children.
For the the Mosai law Inzest specified the brothers and sisters marriage and the marriage between parents and children as punishable action, in Athens forbade that of the Solon. With the Romans it gave due to the refusal incestum (Unzucht, staining; the German word Blutschande is a translation of sanguinis contumelia) strict marriage prohibitions between relatives even up to the sixth and seventh degree, their ignoring with obligation to the suicide (in the 1.Jahrhundert before Chr. by fall by Tarpeji rock was punished). Christianity and Islam forbade Inzest, and the like a Christian reformed churches still strengthened its punishment.
Inzest is criminally pursued in many states. In Germany and Austria only between lineally relatives - thus parents, grandparents, great-grandparents, and their children, Enkelkindern, great-grandchild children - as well as between full and half brothers and sisters. In Germany the descendants and brothers and sisters are not punished, if they were younger at the act time than 18 years. In Austria one does not punish, who at the act time than 19 years was younger and one enticed to the act. In Germany the facts remain fulfilled, even if the in the sense of the civil right expired. "§ 173 of the German penal code places only (vaginalen) the Beischlaf between close relatives under punishment. Other forms of the sexual intercourse are exempt from punishment. In the year 2003 there were 173 StGB due to "§ ten condemnations in the area of the earlier Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany).
In more recent time it is argued occasionally that the Inzestverbot is redundant in principle, since the genetically caused risks for the new generation resulting from Inzest admits is and the right property of the sexual self-determination is to be rated more highly. It is however in each case necessary to clear all Inzestwilligen up over these risks and their avoidance (by means of Besides the goal of such a prohibition is unclear, since preventing potenziell hereditaryill new generation is not a goal of the state.
The French penal code, the code fran§ais, places Inzest no longer under punishment. Different countries follow it, then Inzest becomes today in Belgium, which the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Portugal, which Turkey, Japan, Argentina, and other Latin American states unite Brazil no longer punished.
Concerning the marriage ceremonies is stricter the canonical right of the church than the civil: While e.g. for a catholic marriage ceremony between cousin and cousin church dispensation would be necessary, a marriage before the registry between brothers and sisters as well as descendants and ancestors impossible, in all other cases is however easily possible.
If it comes with the Inzest to the reproduction, the variability of the genes decreases with the descendants and the Heterosis effect, while the Homozygotie rises. Thus the risk of the outbreak of heterozygoten hereditary diseases will become with the children increased, at the same time however positive Erbmerkmale publicised.
Usually a hereditary disease is not based on it that a protein necessary for the metabolism is missing, there the appropriate gene "correctly functioned", because it (approximately by mutation) is damaged. It can occur that an individual concerned does not train a hereditary disease, because it possesses a "functioning" and a "not functioning" variant in each case from the gene. (One calls these variants in the genetics alleles.) whereby "the not functioning" variant is rezessiv, which was however dominant left "functioning" variant. This has the individual concerned the consequence that the hereditary disease is not minted, thus is healthy. Now if two parents are genetically near related and if parents have such "not functioning" gene, then the probability is large that the other parents possess also such a not functioning gene. If this is the case and by the two a descendant it is witnessed then the case arises with a increased probability that the descendant receives two (rezessive) "not functioning variants" of the gene. This leads then to the Zutagetreten of the hereditary disease with this descendant. The descendant is hereditaryill, since two "rezessive variants of the not functioning gene" were left to it. (A "dominant factor variant of the functioning gene" is now missing.)
Because of the large number of genes the risk for the training of hereditary defects of this kind with descendants of is very high relatives genetically close. Like that each second to third child from a relationship between brother and sister is remarkable. About each fourth is mentally handicapped, each sieved has a birth defect, and each respected suffers from a well-known rezessiven illness. Descendants from relations are regarded therefore from legal view as victims of the criminal offence Inzest.
How highly exactly the probability of a hereditary disease is actual due to Inzestes, a risk is of 30% is indicated in the research probably contentiously, sometimes, while other studies speak of a 50% risk.
In nature sometimes strategies are to be found to the Inzestvermeidung. With plants are that for instance blooms, those only only Pollen produce and afterwards for dusting suitably or turned around. With animals and humans it is the sense of smell, which lets relatives genetically close smell in a way, which is not to let sexual feelings arise and therefore Sex between relatives close helps to avoid. Children, who grow up together up to the sixth Lebensjahr, develop a instinktive Inzesthemmung, and even if they are not related, they become most likely not with one another active at the adult age sexually.
The training of a double Chromosomensatzes, which is connected closely with the (thus the generation of descendants by more than one predecessor), is seen as means of nature to reduce the negative consequences of mutations (substantial disadvantage of the organism, if a gene copy does not function "") as from each gene at least an additional copy is present in each cell.
The animal species with the highest well-known Inzestrate are the Nacktmulle.