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» Economics » Former enterprise (Germany) » Topics begins with I » Industrial union colors

Page modified: Wednesday, July 13, 2011 09:02:20

The industrial union dye industry AG, briefly industrial union colors, was the largest German chemistry enterprise, which was formed 1926 from a multiplicity of chemistry enterprises. After the end of the Second World War the industrial union colors should be dissolved because of the involving with the LV regime on resolution of the allied control council. In addition the industrial union colors was smashed again to independent companies and the remaining remainder as a right successor to I.G.Farbenindustrie AG to completion (in general) (industrial union colors iA) renamed. Despite an insolvency end of the yearly 2003 the shares of the industrial union colors are still quoted iA also in the year 2006 (master data: NAME I.G.Farbenindustrie AG in general, ISIN DE0005759070, WKN 575907, symbol IGL).


The community of interests 1904 based of

  • Agfa (corporation for aniline production Berlin)
  • BASF (aniline and Sodafabrik of Baden Ludwigshafen)
  • Bavarian (Farbenfabriken pre-mount Friedrich Bavarian & Co. Elberfeld)

Therefore it also three-federation was called. The industrial union was limited first to exchange of experience and renouncement of competition by common products. Model in addition were Trusts - trusts in the USA, e.g. standard oil. Trusts were central corporations, developed by the combination of several corporations, which kept formally their existence, actually each independence lost. The elimination of the competition permitted maximization of profit and the more simply interspersing of own interests.

The First World War

During the First World War (1916) the enterprises closed

  • Cassella (Leopold Cassella & CO., GmbH, Frankfurt)
  • Chem. factory Griesheim electron, Griesheim
  • Chem. factories pre-mount Weiler ter seas, Uerdingen
  • Most (inking attachments pre-mount masters, Lucius and most A. Main)
  • Kalle (Kalle & CO. AG, Wiesbaden Biebrich)

to the extended community of interests of the German tar color factories on. The enterprises remained however legally independent. Enormous profits could be ensured by this Kartellbildung on the one hand and powerful war guidance on the other hand. The production of poisonous gas agents, in addition, the ammonia synthesis as raw material for the explosive after the Haber-Bosch-process, which reduced raw material dependence (Salpeter) strongly, are mentioned as most important products of the I.G. at this time.

The industrial union dye industry AG

Only 1925/1926 were created the industrial union dye industry AG in Frankfurt/Main, by change of name of the aniline and Sodafabrik of Baden, which took up then the other enterprises. Carl Bosch of the BASF was first chairman of the board, Carl Duisberg of Bavarian AG of first supervisory board chairmen, in whom among other things also Fritz Haber member was. The Einzelunternehmungen were now only branches of the industrial union. The capital stock amounted to after the fusion 1926 approximately 1.1 billion realm Marks, the number of persons employed over 80.000. The company was prominent in the atmospheric nitrogen industry as well as in the production of tar colors, explosives and fibers. The head office of the industrial union colors in Frankfurt was at the time at that time one of the largest office buildings of Europe.

Already for the thirties a system of mutual participation of industrial union colors and DuPont existed.

The industrial union colors and the LV state

1926 began the production of synthetic gasoline in Leuna, after which Bergius procedure made of coal hydrogenates. There was the danger that this would become one of the largest bad investments, because the production costs were ever higher than with the natural gasoline. Medium-term the gasoline synthesis was not survivable without assistance of the state.

Therefore the director of the Leuna works Heinrich looked for the contact to Adolf Hitler in Munich, in order to find out in the summer 1932 whether the synthetic gasoline of the industrial union too expensive for the world market was made competitive by protective duties also further. Hitler made clear to it that he German fuel necessarily for a politically independent Germany for compellingly judged. This were after Carl Bosch "reasonable opinions", which were supported 1932 with the highest single donation of the German industry at a value of 400.000 realm Marks in the framework by Hitler's election campaign. Under the presidency of Carl Bosch agreed the industrial union color general assembly at the beginning of of December 1932 the program of the "Agrarkartellierung", an interest compromise of industry and Grossagrariern. This resolution of the then largest company of Europe prepared also the way to the LV dictatorship (Borkin 1986, S 57f. " Joseph Borkin: The unheilige alliance of the industrial union colors. A community of interests in the third realm. Campus, Frankfurt/Main 1990, ISBN 3-593-34251-0 Alfreds son Rethel: Industry and national socialism. Recordings from the" Central European economic congress ". Car brook, Berlin 1992, ISBN 3-8031-2204-X, P. 87

The new government closed for it still 1933 with the industrial union colors a contract over paragraph and minimum price warranty for 350.000 tons synthetic gasoline and protected so the enterprise altogether 300 million realm Marks loss. 1935 became Hermann Schmitz successor of Carl Bosch as chairman of the board and 1940 Carl Krauch successor as a supervisory board chairman. Krauch had a dual function. It made also in the government career and was in the end director of the armament-economical control center and authorized persons for special questions of chemical production. To 1937 almost all directors of the industrial union were member of the NSDAP. The supervisory board members of the industrial union called themselves in the internal circle "the advice of the Gods".

The industrial union colors expanded strongly, also through "Arisierungen ", for example the former competitor Aussiger their belonged to point times in Germany 200 works, as well as about 400 German and 500 foreign enterprise participation.

The Vorkriegsepoche

With nitrogen production for the production of ammunition, Buna synthetic rubber as india rubber replacement, synthetic gasoline from coal and magnesium under the designation electron were to be made in such a way before that and in the Second World War with appropriate quantity and price guarantees by the ruling powers of most profitable business. Further well-known products of industrial union colors were among other things the plastic perlon and the nerve gas tabun.

Since 1929 the business relations existing with the standard oil OF new jersey (and trust arrangements) also during the Second World War were maintained. The industrial union played an important role in the four-year plan. Thus Hitler's memorandum was based to the four-year plan on documents of the industrial union and in the consequence many posts of the four-year plan authority with industrial union coworkers was occupied, to who the company paid extraordinarily high salaries, in order to keep it connected with the company.

The Second World War

From the 43 Hauptprodukten of the industrial union during the war were 28 products of armament-economical importance. The industrial union colors, it transferred a set of chemical plants in the occupied areas, like the Skoda works Wetzler in Jewish possession.


The strong need at raw materials for war guidance, like Synthetikkautschuk and - gasoline, led 1941 to the establishment of a large Bunafabrik in Auschwitz. The industrial union colors carried the financing expenses at a value of approx. 1 billion realm Mark alone, in order to be able to remain gentleman in such a way in the own house. For the prisoners, who had to build the factory, specially the concentration camp mono joke, Auschwitz III was established. In this the industrial union was responsible for the accommodation and food supply and the SS for the guard and the exchange of the forced laborers. To different investigations during the building and production in the I.G. color work Auschwitz Monowitz died over 25.000 prisoners. A subsidiary of the I.G. colors the company Degesch (German society for supplied the pesticide cyclone B, which was used in the Gaskammern of the extermination camps to the mass murder.

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