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» Economics » Printing » Topics begins with H » History of the Typografie

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The history of the Typografie offers a chronological overview of the development of the writing culture.

See also: Typografie,

Handwritten prehistory to Drucktypen

Karolingi Minuskel

With support since end of the 8. Century, in particular in the context of the education reforms of Karl of the large one (so-called Karolingi reform), the Karolingi Minuskel spread far parts of Central Europe controlling Karolinger over completely Europe. The writing penetrated latest in Spain (westgothical Minuskel), Great Britain (Insulare writings) and South Italies (Beneventana, Curialisca).

The Karolingi Minuskel is the model for the small letter alphabet in its today still common form. The copies of antique authors (e.g. Horaz, Vergil, Homer) in Scriptorien led it with the scholars of the Renaissance to the acceptance, acts with the Karolingi Minuskel around the original writing of the antique ones. Starting from that 14. Century developed in such a way on basis of the Karolinigi writings in Italy the so-called Humanisti Minuskel, which became the collecting main of the first Renaissance block letters (Veneziani Renaissance Antiqua, starting from approx. 1470). In demarcation to contemporary writings (the Textura and the Rotunda) this writing new creation was called antique (lat. antiqus), in order to define it in such a way in relation to the writings developed later. Of it the term is derived Antiqua.

Gothic (1100-1500)

From the Minuskel gradually the book writings of the gothic developed. Their numerous variants were characterised all by a regular, strict, closely written typeface. The roundnesses of the letters are broken. A close, dark typeface develops in its structure-like form strongly reminded of woven materials; therefore also the term is derived Textura for the writings of this epoch. At the same time Spain developed and in smaller measure in Germany in addition, another writing in Italy: The Rotunda or round-gothical. With the round-gothical writing the forms are further and the letters possess instead of the hard angles roundnesses. This made the writing more readable. Both character fonts were taken over by the printers of the incunabulum time. To center 16. Century they are displaced however by other writings.

In the gothic italic writings are adapted to the use in books in such a way and continued to develop to the so-called hybrids. In Central Europe in particular the german type is successful, which form also the model for type drafts of Albrecht the and Johann The Schwabacher and those the print format in Germany to in 20. Century controlling german type orient themselves at the model this hybrids.

In the countries around the Mediterranean, the main circulation area of the Rotunda, against it the roman characters developed from the karolinigischen Minuskel become generally accepted.

Renaissance (1400-1600)

Good mountain 42-zeilige Bible of 1455 had still the best gothical handwriting to the model. But already 10 years later recognized German pressure masters in Italy (Subiaco) and venezianische successors (Nicolas Jenson, Aldus among other things) that the new technology made possible also another styling. They created the first Renaissance Antiqua, which deduced itself from the human Minuskel written with broad feather/spring. One differentiates between here two forms, the venezianische and the French Renaissance Antiqua. Their most well-known representative was Claude Garamond. 1600 had become the Renaissance Antiqua the prevailing book writing in Europe. It is characterised by a calm, harmonious and bright typeface and has pronounced upper and short lengths. Because of their formal qualities and good legibility it is also today often used still.

Baroque (starting from 1590)

The baroque Antiqua is stylistic seen above all the transition writing to the klassizistischen Antiqua. Their form is lively by the precise Kupferstecher writings. The line strength differences are clearer and the picture higher-contrast than in the Renaissance. The development was advanced particularly in France, Holland and England. William Caslon and John Baskerville are probably the most well-known English Schriftgestalter. The latter became famous also because of the simplicity pointing the way of its Typografie.

Classicism (1760-1830)

In the classicism the development of the Antiqua reaches their provisional terminator point and it developed the typographic point system. The letters became more tender due to the technical advancement ever higher-contrast, the serifs ever. Writings were designed with ruler and circle, in order to meet the ideal from clarity and standard to. Due to its they in addition, substantially more difficult are to read than their predecessors from the Renaissance and the baroque. Grouped style and axle center remained as forms of the Typografie further. Task of the Typografen was the choice of a suitable writing and the structuring of the text. Book decoration was economically used. Sumptuous illustrated initials yielded initials in the basic writing. At the end of the classicism the first grotesque and Egyptienne writings emerged. The most important representatives of the epoch were: Bodoni, Didot and whale tree.

Art nouveau (1890-1914)

As one of the effects of the work of William Morris, it comes among the pupils from Morris to the new figuration of the writing. Above all Edward John clay/tone gives a new picture to the writing. Further Eric Gill and Anna Simons are to be called here. In Vienna is active Rudolf of Larisch and Otto hitting a corner man as well as Peter Behrens gives with their writings those today as art nouveau well-known writing forms. Beside these at the East Asian brush writing gave it in addition, a multiplicity of other remarkable writings in the phase of art nouveau oriented. Fritz Hellmuth Ehmke and Friedrich William Kleukens are here mentioned.

Futurismus (1910-1920)

Expressionism (1910-1925)

Dadaismus (around 1915)

Constructionalism (around 1920)

Elementary Typografie (around 1925)

Meditation on a simple, natural and technically caused Typografie.Siehe also elementary Typografie.

NS time (1933-1945)

If the german type writing had gained much in the past ground and the relevant writing in Germany had become, then this changed under the rule of the national socialists.

After 1928 57% of all books in german type, published by Germany, were printed. Latin writing applied particularly in scientific publications and fields of the art and technology its. The german type writing appeared in nearly all training and as well as the classical and popular literature, which often appeared with a very high edition number. Collected the number of items of the books in German block letters amounted to roughly 90% or even still more. On 3 January 1941 a circular was issued to the realm, gau leader and formation leader of the 3. Rich, in which the prohibition of the german type writing was announced:

'' Munich, which 9 January 1941 has"… on the today's day the leader in a discussion with Mr. Reichsleiter Amann and it decided Mr. Buchdruckereibesitzer Adolf Mueller that the Antiqua was to be called writing in the future normal script. Gradually all printed products are to be changed over to this normal script. As soon as this is school book-moderately possible, becomes in the village schools and elementary schools only more the normal script to be taught. The use of the Schwabacher Jew type characters by authorities will in the future be omitted; Certificates of appointment for officials, strassenschilder and such a thing will be manufactured in the future only more in normal script"…. sgd. M. Bormann

In this paragraph is the general prohibition of the german type writing, although the word is not used" forbidden "here. Rather one promises, which has to apply" in the future ". First the large daily papers were changed over to the normal script, probably with the desire to increase the spreading abroad for propaganda purposes.

Experimental Typografie (around 1965)

New functionalism (around 1980)

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