The beginnings of the history of the printing are in Germany, Eastern Asia, to find Babylon and Rom. The oldest printed books were manufactured in the block compression matter so mentioned, with which each individual side was cut completely into a wood print and taken off then. It does not concern thereby yet the book form, how we know her today. The printing with all its economic, cultural and science-historical effects developed in that today admitted form as culture-coining/shaping information and communication technology in Europe. With the invention Johannes of good mountain in 15. Century spread the art of the printing in few decades in completely Europe from and in the centuries after over the whole earth.
Allegedly mobile type characters (from metal and wood) were common in far parts of Asia, however printing could not become generally accepted with mobile type characters, how it was developed later in Germany, in China: Thousands and thousands of Chinese characters prevented the fast composition of pressure plates from mobile type characters. That means also that with those of the printing in Europe is not to be compared the effects of the wood type character and Blockdrucks in Japan. The compression matter in Asia did not permit mass pressures like the system of good mountain.
The book pressure, like it after Stanislas Julien ("document sur d'imprimerie" l'art) already in the year 581 n. Chr. by the Chinese to have been invented is and to a large extent also this very day one practices, cannot as printing into unserm senses not be regarded; it stands only with the forerunners of the same, for the timber panel pressures, on a stage. Julien explains after Chinese sources: In the year 593 the governing emperor is whom Di to have instructed to collect all writings not published yet to cut and give change in wood; other Chinese sources shift the time of the invention in 10. Century of our time calculation (between 936 and 993) and have, since from earlier pressures nothing can be proven with security, the larger probability for itself.
Forge, Piching, is even between 1041 and 1049 the pressure with mobile, i.e. in arbitrary order arrangable and after the made casting to taking characters to have invented again apart, by digging the characters into thin boards of soft clay/tone, this cut, in the fire hardened and then depending upon need on iron forms, which were provided already with in Chinese usual senkrechten line boundaries, arranged, by soluble cement to an immovable plate connecting, extracting it after the pressure however the cement again, in order to be able to use the characters again. After its death are meanwhile its indications been lost and also its pressure method are to have been soon forgotten.
Piching is to have implemented the casting of the characters in the same way, how its predecessors did it and how its successors do it: on the wood block, into which the Chinese cut the characters raised, with a broad brush a rather liquid color is laid on, then the paper presented and with a kurzhaarigen, soft brush over-rubbed, a procedure, how similarly also the German and Netherlands timber panel printers practiced it, whose pressures could take place just like the Chinese only on a side of the paper (anapistographisch).
To actually prove the mobile type character pressure in the Empire of China in the 11 leaves itself alleged. Century as invention of Bi Sheng. Its work methods became of Shen Kuo in mix Xi Bi seaweed dt. "Brush maintenances at the dream brook. ") noted.
Emperor Kangxi, 1661 in China arrived at the government, let cut mobile characters, however only in measure very limited and for repeatedly recurring works, on Veranlassung by Jesuitenmissionaren first again in copper; the relatively valuable material is to have become fatal these types: a later emperor let it melt with shortness of funds, and in 19. Century still served in China with the book pressure the raw woodcut like already before nearly 1000 years.
Until today however any material proof for the printing with mobile type characters in China is missing.
In Korea allegedly individually cut type characters made of metal were already developed around 1232, an indication, which is however not scientifically secured and recognized.
The second volume of the Anthologie of the Zen teachings large buddhistischer priest ("Buljo printed in July 1377 jikji simche yojeol", Bd. II) from Korea the oldest well-known example of a printing with mobile metal type characters is belonged and just like the 42-zeilige good mountain Bible since 2001 to the UNESCO register of the world document inheritance "MEMORY OF the World". It exists however only the second volume printed with wood type characters; the first volume, only the second volume existed still, and of it also only only copy "disappeared", while there are still 48 copies from the good mountain Bible. Possibly the Korean book is also only a good falsification (out e.g. China come lately a lot, above all which concerns fossils). From a mass compression matter or a printing in the actual sense therefore no speech can be.
The principle of the pressure, if by it only stamping characters for a report or recording is understood about facts, can by the way be retraced still much further. In the graves of Theben and to Babylon bricks with stamped inscriptions were found; completely with writing characters covered, obtains engraved forms manufactured burned clay/tone cylinders represented the old Assyrern the place of the chronicles; on Athens maps were engraved on thin copper plates; Roman marked the Geschirre with the names of the orderers or with the indication of the purpose, produced by them, for which they were intended; yes, rich Romans gave produced alphabets to their children from ivory or made of metal for the easement of the read learning. And on these carved individual letters and their building up barness refers an utterance of Cicero, who contains the principle of the Typensatzes in clear words. And nevertheless still one and a half millenia had to offense, before this was really invented! The verbal report of facilitating life no general read need was not only missing to the paper, bestgeeigneten for the pressure, it in the antiquity at the material, was present also due to the quite public; the requirements of the education and scholars however could by and the art of copying practiced extraordinarily maintained particularly with the Romans by slaves completely are particularly sufficient to be carried out.
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