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» Economics » Technology in the horticulture » Topics begins with G » Greenhouse

Page modified: Thursday, July 14, 2011 01:28:18

A greenhouse or a glasshouse (also greenhouse isolates mentioned) is a translucent construction, which makes a protected and controlled rearing possible of plants.

The cover - traditionally from glass, today often foils - increases on the one hand by the greenhouse effect the temperature, on the other hand one it protects against precipitation. By regulation of the air temperature and the irrigation an optimal growth of the plants and a certain controlling of other conditions (reproduction etc.) are possible.

At present largest greenhouse of the world is that of the Eden of project.

Structure and components of a greenhouse

Plant and/or glasshouses are there in very different sizes of few square meters up to enormous palm houses (see upper picture). In an allotment already 1-2 cast-off windows are sufficient, in order to build a low greenhouse, whose climate can be regulated by opening the glass areas.

A greenhouse has at least

  1. a cover, usually from glass or glass fiber, and/or plastic foils (PMMA, polycarbonate, PVC or PE), permeable for light. Sometimes also insect nets or so-called Schattiergewebe are used.
  2. a patch surface - either at the soil, as high patch, on tables or hanging devices.
  3. a protecting construction, either from brick-work of suitable height, from metal frames or other construction units.
  4. a ventilation (also for temperature control).

Furthermore many plant/glasshouses possess:

  • Plants to the irrigation and/or for spray irrigation
  • Heating system
  • Shade plant
  • electrical or electronic control.

To the further equipment can belong:

  • A so-called energy screen
  • a black-out plant
  • (artificial) exposure plant
  • Heat buffer tank heat accumulator
  • Force heat plant force heat coupling
  • Climatic regulation greenhouse computer
  • Irrigation automation

Function mode

One differentiates with the greenhouses depending upon interior temperature

  • the Kalthaus for temperatures under 12"°C,
  • the house kept at a moderate temperature for temperatures of 12 - 18"°C,
  • the warm house (greenhouse, English Hothouse) for temperatures over 18 degrees Celsius.

During sun exposure it comes to a strong heating up in the greenhouse. The reason for it is a kind accumulation of heat: the energy of the solar radiation warms up first the soil, the plants and parts of the greenhouse, but again the radiant heat (infrared), delivered by them, is held back by the area.

This glasshouse effect (designation of J.Fourier) is often used with houses (winter garden) and roof areas (e.g. studios), but also generally speaking with Orangerien and locks. Air warmed up by the heated interior is cooled down from the outside with closed glass areas only few, because the air interchange is small. However nearly all infrared radiation of the glass and the building is back reflected into the area ("selective transparency").

However the interior temperature can increase to plant-harmful 35"°C and more on a normal sun day. Therefore one must know greenhouses also air, which takes place usually with roof or standing wall ventilation.

Newer building methods

Newer types, so-called Cabrio greenhouses, can push their roof area together to a large extent. Thus the interior temperature can be steered in such a way that it corresponds nearly to the outside temperature. This leads to a clear quality improvement with cold cultures and during the summer months.

For the professional vegetable growing today plastic foils are often used, which cover partial large surfaces and whole valley soils. In El Ejido do not stand as many greenhouses covered with plastic tarpaulins as anywhere otherwise in Europe.

Most modern technology is used frequently first in research greenhouses. In the plant experimental plant PhyTec research center of the are used for example glasses from the solar industry, which maximum transparency and mechanical stability exhibit.


  • George Kohlmaier; Barna of Sartory: The glasshouse: a building type 19. Century, 2. Aufl., Munich: Prestel, 1988, ISBN 3-7913-0506-9
  • Pinske: Greenhouses: the practice councellor. Materials and designs, mechanism and technology, practice approximately around the year, Munich: blv, 2005, ISBN 3-405-16835-X
  • Christian von Zabeltitz, Planning and building. 65 tables, 2. , neubearb. and erw. Aufl., Ulmer publishing house, Stuttgart 1986

See also

  • Mini greenhouse, harvest factor, winter garden, flat glass,
  • Strahlungsbilanz, greenhouse effect, passive house,
  • Botani garden, the glasshouse (film), The Glass House, glasshouse (volume), the glasshouse (municipality Holle)

Articles in category "Greenhouse"

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» Greenhouse
» Greenhouse computer

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