German currency history since the establishment of realm (1871) was coined/shaped by a set of currency reforms. The highlights were the introduction of the Marks of 1873, the hyperinflation 1923, the following currency reform on pension Mark (late realm Mark), the separation in west and ostmark after the Second World War, the monetary union 1990 and the introduction of the euro 1999/2002.
Major item: Goldmark
On 9 July 1873 the Mark replaced the currencies of the individual countries as the first all-German currency. That happened in the course of the standardization in again-created German realm. Another name for this currency is Goldmark, Mark was however the official designation. One finds it also on coins and notes of this time. The system in Germany was uniform for the small coins under the course coins (thus for 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 25 and 50 Pfennig as well as 1/2 and 1 Mark). They showed the nominal (nominal value) on a side and on the other side the realm eagle. With the large nominal ones (2, 5, 10 and 20 Marks) the system functioned as that of the Euros: Uniform front (realm eagle + nominal) and nationaltypical back. To 1918 all partial states of Germany had the right of coining money. For the circulation the following states coined/shaped: Prussia (mintmark A, B and C), Bavaria (D), Saxonia (E), (F), bathing (G), Hessen darmstadt (H) and Hamburg (J). Other small states gave only intending coins for specific occasions out (e.g. birthday or government anniversary of the ruler). Starting from 1916 slowly inflation began. Coins were coined/shaped now made of unedlen metals (iron, zinc, aluminum). The inflation increased until 1923 inexorably, so that the old Mark was completely cancelled. One had to replace it by a new currency. The Mark was set on 15 November 1923 except course.
Major item: Pension Mark
The pension Mark replaced the Marks in the relationship 1:1 Billon after the hyperinflation of 1923. It was meant only as temporary solution. It was called pension Mark, because it was covered with the pensions. Later it was slowly again also covered gold - as at that time usual. The pension Mark was replaced on 30 August 1924 by the realm Marks.
Major item: Realm Mark
When the gold reserves were enough 1924 again, in order to cover thereby a currency, the temporary solution "pension Mark" was replaced by the realm Marks. That happened on 30 August 1924. Conversion was 1:1, it concerned actually only a change of name. The realm Mark had remained quite stable up to the world economic crisis 1929. To finance during the Nazi period much uncovered money spent around the costs of war and other Nazi projects. Thus it came to inflation, which the citizens did not get to feel however due to the national price adjustment. The realm Mark had become worthless however already 1943 on the international foreign exchange market. It was replaced in the west zones and the three west sectors of Berlin starting from 20 June 1948 by the German Marks. (As issuing bank the "bank of German countries" functioned, of the later "German Federal Bank".) Different rates of exchange applied to different money. Each citizen was allowed to 1000 RM in the course 10:1 conversions. On 23 June 1948 there was a currency reform also in the east zone. Exchange relationship was 10:1 here likewise.
Major item: German Marks
The west zones accomplished a currency reform on 20 June 1948. The realm Mark was replaced in the relationship 10:1 of the German Mark. It was always quite stable and up to beginning of the 70's-years in gold covered. 1975 disappeared then the "silver eagles" from the purses, since the rate of silver had strongly risen. They were coined/shaped from now on in nickel. 1975 ended thus in Germany the phase of the silver money. There were not gold coins already since 1918 no more.
Major item: Mark of the GDR
On 23 June 1948 in the Soviet zone of occupation a currency reform was accomplished. The realm Mark in the relationship 10:1 was replaced by the German Marks of the German issuing bank. 1964 took place then a renaming of the currency in Marks of the German issuing bank (MDN). On 14 September 1974 the MDN in Marks of the GDR was renamed. The abbreviation read M. the coins of the GDR in aluminum was coined/shaped, only the of the yearly 1950 and the piece of 20-Pfennig starting from 1969 in brass coined/shaped. There were coins to 1, 5, 10, 20, 50 Pfennig as well as to 1 and 2 Mark. In addition 5, 10 was spent - and 20-Mark intending coins. It published in tombac, german silver and in small editions also in silver, sample coinages also in Gold.Am 1 July 1990 was replaced the Marks of the GDR by the German Marks.
Major item: Euro
The euro was introduced into Germany on 1 January 1999 and was starting from 1 January 2002 in the circulation. It was exchanged in the relationship 1:1,95583 DM.
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