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» Economics » Economist (20. Jh.) » Topics begins with F » Fritz star mountain

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Friedrich "Fritz" mountain be a German economist, Marxist theoretician and socialist politician (* 11 June 1895 in Breslau; "† 18 October 1963 in Munich)


Fritz star mountain was born on 11 June 1895 as a fifth child of a Jewish education-civil family in Breslau. When thirteen-year old high school student came he with socialist ideas into contact, starting from 1910 wrote for the first time he occasionally articles for the local social-democratic daily paper people-been awake. At the same time it attached the Jewish youth movement and came themselves here among other things also into contact with Martin Buber. After the Abitur star mountain took up 1913 first to Breslau, then to Berlin a study of the political economy, in this time cooperated it to different socialist zionistischen organizations. The beginning of the First World War, which star mountain estimated as imperialistic war and which by the social-democratic realm tag parliamentary group led grant of the war credits to an alienation from the SPD. In May 1916 star mountain was called up into the military, in occupied Poland came it to contacts with the federation, in August 1917 succeeded it it, a giving time off to the graduation (the Jews as carriers of a new economy in Palestine) to reach, it in the same year completed. In the following years until approx. 1922 star mountain ranked itself among the zionistisch socialist Poale Zion. The November revolution he experienced in his hometown and was member of the there soldier advice.

After a longer stay in Vienna in the summer 1919 (with which it itself among other things also with the psychoanalysis busy) began it in the winter semester 1919/20 at the university Frankfurt a place at the seminar of Franz Oppenheimer, where it researched until 1923 both (among other things to the Genossenschaftswesen and to the marginal utility theory) as well as informed. A failed Habilitationsversuch and arguments with Oppenheimer induced to give up to star mountain its university career and dedicate starting from 1923 studies for the analysis of the imperialism, at the same time departed it, after he still 1921 participated in the zionistischen congress in Karl bath, from the Zionismus. Star mountain withdrew now, also for financial reasons again after Breslau, where it developed a Marxist discussion circle (the germ cell of the later SAPD Ortsgruppe) and at its end of 1926 appeared book the imperialism worked.

In this time of intensified star mountain of contacts both to well-known artists and Bertolt break, Lion Feuchtwanger or George Grosz as also to different Marxist circles and personalities. After Karl Korsch might have been star mountain that person, who coined/shaped the Marxismusrezeption Brechts crucially. The possibility opened the discussions around the imperialism of writing regularly for different publications of the workers' movement article and of holding seminars and courses among other things for trade unionist gutters for star mountain, which improved its material situation strongly. 1927 participated star mountain in the anti-imperialistic congress in Brussels, 1929 and 1930 were it twice in the Soviet Union to guest, where he discussed among other things with Eugen Varga, Karl Radek and Nikolai Bucharin, its there impressions strengthened its criticism at the Stalinismus. From 1930 to derem prohibition in March 1933 star mountain wrote regularly articles for the world stage, mostly under the aliases Thomas camouflage and K.L. Gerstorff. In this time connected it a close co-operation with Hans Mayer, the poet Peter Huchel lived occasionally in star mountain dwelling.

On 7 November 1931 star mountain joined few weeks before the created socialist labour party of Germany (SAPD), for which it was nearly nonstop active in the next years despite breaking out diabetes. Star mountain appeared to organized internal training courses and course as a speaker on demonstrations of the SAPD, wrote articles for the party press and stood as a candidate (unsuccessfully) with the Prussian elections of the federal parliament 1932 at the first list place in the constituency Berlin. Together with Klaus Zweiling he wrote a program design, whose economic analyses were accepted as far as possible for the first Party Congress of the SAPD. It belonged to the former KPDO members party-internally together with Zweiling, around Paul and Jakob Walcher and the guidance of the SJVD to the left party wing, which wanted to develop the SAPD further to a revolutionary-Marxist party and itself at the beginning of of 1933 against the Liquidationskurs of the linkssozialdemokratisch pazifistischen party leadership around max of Seydewitz and Kurt rose field could intersperse.

Since star mountain was particularly endangered after the power transmission to the NSDAP as Jew and a Marxist, it submerged after the realm tag fire and fled to 12. March 1933 as winter sportsmen disguises from Germany over that giant mountains into Czechoslovakia, of where out it further-traveled to Basel. There he spent under economic and residencelegally precarious conditions the next three years, and organized from there from the support the illegal work of the SAPD in Southern Germany. At the end of August/at the beginning of of September 1933 met it in Royan/France with occasional Leo the Trotzki exilierten there; Main discussion topic was the analysis of the imperialism beside it in addition, the structure revolutionary fourth international ones. In the spring 1936 star mountain from Switzerland was proven and moved to Paris, where the exile executive committee of the SAPD resided. In this time star mountain took part sporadically in '' the committee for the preparation of the German people front '', until slandering of the SAPD made a cooperation impossible by the KPD as Gestapo agency. In the years until 1939 star mountain furthermore one of the main authors in the SAPD newspapers were the Marxist grandstand and the new front - organ for proletarian-revolutionary collection, regular contributions beyond that Galler day sheet and the Economist appeared in the new world stage and in civil sheets like the pc.

In May 1939 star mountain with a tourist visa entered into the USA, outbreak of war its residence permit a half year at a time was extended, until it received 1943 an immigration visa and 1948 the US nationality. In this time he worked on the one hand as a free journalist (among other things for The nation and The new Republic), on the other hand researched it, supported of the Rockefeller Foundation and the Brookings institution financially to the German wartime economy. 1944 belonged to A Democratic Germany to the co-signatories of the program of the Council initiated by the socialist theologian Paul Tillich for, at the same time maintained it close contacts to important left American trade union leader6s as Victor Reuther and David Dubinsky, which made possible for it the holding of unionized training courses. To living costs years furthermore lectures contributed and and seminars at different universities up to the end of the 1950er.

1950 returned star mountain for the first time since 1933 again to Europe, where he spoke as a representative of the American socialists on the international socialist demonstration on 20 August in Frankfurt/Main, 1951 undertook it a journey to Yugoslavia, where he discussed among other things with EDP pool of broadcasting corporations Kardelj. Starting from 1954 the point of food of star mountain (with retention of the American nationality) shifted again to Europe, in the coming years up to its death 1963 engaged itself it as an adviser particularly in trade unions, in working groups at the left SPD wing and with the


  • The Jews as carriers of a new economy in Palestine. A study. Vienna 1921.
  • The imperialism. Berlin 1926.
  • The imperialism and its critics. Berlin 1929.
  • A circulation of the Criticism of the book by Henryk Grossmann: The accumulation and collapse law of the capitalistic system. At the same time a positive analysis of the imperialism. Berlin 1930
  • The fall of German capitalism. Berlin 1932.
  • Fascism at power. Amsterdam 1935.
  • Germany and A Lightning was. London 1938.
  • From Nazi SOURCEs. Why Hitler can't win. New York/Toronto 1939.
  • The coming Crisis. New York/Toronto 1947.
  • How ton stop the Russians was without. New York/Toronto 1948.
  • Living with the Crisis. The Battle against depression and was. New York 1949.
  • Capitalism at Socialism on Trial. New York 1951.
  • The end to OF A revolution. Soviet Russia - From revolution ton of Reaction. New York 1953.
  • Marx and the present. Development tendencies in the second half of the twentieth century. Cologne 1955.
  • The military and the industrielle revolution. Berlin/Frankfurt/Main 1959.
  • Who controls the second half 20. Cologne/Berlin 1961.
  • The poet and the reason. Memories of Bertolt break. Goettingen 1963.
  • Notes to Marx - today. Frankfurt/Main 1965.


  • Helga Grebing (Hrsg.): Fritz star mountain - for the future of socialism (series of publications Otto burner donation No. 23), Frankfurt/Main 1981.

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