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» Economics » War criminal » Topics begins with F » Friedrich Jeckeln

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Friedrich Jeckeln (* 2 February 1895 in horn mountain (Black Forest); "† 3 February 1946 in Riga, (Latvia) was a higher SS and police leader, last, among other things responsible to general of the weapon SS for the mass murders in Babi Jar and in the Ghetto of Riga. It was executed 1946 as a war criminal.

Early years

The son of a factory owner visited first the upper six-form high school and afterwards for terms the polytechnic institute in During the First World War he was as an artilleryman at the west front, 1915 in the rank of a second lieutenant, 1916 he heavily was wounded and changed to the Air Force.

Intermediate wartime

From 1919 to 1925 Jeckeln worked as an estate manager in close proximity to Danzig, afterwards he was unemployed. 1922 it joined the young-German medal, whose member remained he until 1924; in addition it was member in free corps. In the meantime Jeckeln was also member of the DNVP, until he finally occurred 1929 the NSDAP, where he was active as speakers and a supervisor first. In the December of the same yearly Jeckeln occurred also the SS.

Rapid ascent in NSDAP and SS

At 1930 then its fast ascent in both organizations began: In September 1931 he became upper leader in the SS-banner 12 and in February 1932 took over he the guidance and the supreme command over the SS-section IV (province Hanover and Schleswig-Holstein). 1933 he became SS-group leader in the SS-Oberabschnitt northwest. 1938 were Jeckeln in Braunschweig and Hanover at the organization under the key word "of the crystal night "admit become Judenpogrome involved.

Police head of the Free State Braunschweig

On 20 June 1933 Jeckeln was appointed by the NSDAP Prime Minister of the Free State Braunschweig, Dietrich Klagges, the leader of the Gestapo, the police force and commander of the security police in Braunschweig. Klagges a' goal thereby was to be guaranteed a close linkage of police and SS.

1932 were already Jeckeln responsible for explosive notices in Braunschweig, so e.g. on the house of the mayor at that time of the city Ernst (SPD), who remained however intact.

Jeckeln was described as inconsiderate, brutally, excessively and hard. He pursued politically other-thinking one, v. A. of members of the KPD, SPD and the trade unions unyieldingly in their death. Together with NSDAP member Friedrich Alpers, Minister of Finance and law in the Free State as well as Prime Minister Klagges, was mainresponsible to Jeckeln for the giant mountain murders in the summer 1933. Beyond that, he arranged the murder of a SS-man in Braunschweig.

The Second World War

Supervisor of the Holocaust

Kamenez Podolski

Starting from 1940 Jeckeln became additional HSSPF west in Duesseldorf. After the German attack on the Soviet Union ("enterprise Barbarossa ") he was appointed 1941 the HSSPF in "the army area south "(occupied Ukraine). Soon after its taking office it came to a first mass murder organized by it at Ukrainian and Hungarian Jews, when it subordinated units murdered 23,600 Jews between 10 August and 1 September 1941 with the locality Kamenez Podolski.

Babi Jar, Rowno and Dnjepropetrowsk

On 19 September 1941 Kiew was taken by German troops; some days after, on 27 September 1941 a discussion with the topic took place "evacuation "of the local resident Jews. Participants were among other things Jeckeln, the commander of the group of employments of C, Otto rapid, as well as the commander of the special command 4a, Paul Blobel. It was decided to murder all Jews.

In only two days through "groups of employments were murdered "to 29. and 30 September 1941 in the ravine Babi Jar 33,771 persons; with further shooting actions by 12 October 1941 altogether 51.000. In addition it came to mass shooting into Rowno and Dnjepropetrowsk, in which Jeckeln was mainresponsible involved in each case.

Rigaer Ghetto

On 11 October 1941 Jeckeln was appointed the HSSPF north and east country (the Baltic and parts of white Russia) and shifted after Riga. At this time the Judenghetto Riga already existed, in which ten thousands of lettischer Jews were. Kept Jeckeln from Himmler personally the instruction alleged to vacate the Ghetto in order to make for Jews, who were deportiert from the German Reich, place. Jeckeln began immediately with the planning "of liquidating ". As place of the mass murder it selected a in the proximity Rigas: Rumbula.

The mass murder of Rumbula

In the morning 30 lettische and German troops began November 1941 with the evacuation of the Jews after Rumbula, where on only two days, i.e. on 30 November and on 8 December 1941 altogether approx. 25,000 persons were shot - of it 21,000 women and children.

The mass murder happened in presence of "visitors ": Belonging one of the armed forces and the Generalkommissariats were present, in order to provide a personal impression, some even by Jeckeln were personally invited and/or to it abkommandiert, because: Jeckeln wanted Mitwisser and witnesses, in order to load the debt also on others and to make these thereby accomplices and jointly guilty ones, in order to insure itself so its discretion.

Final phase of the war

At the beginning of of 1942 was Jeckeln - again personal - involved in "the action sump fever ", with which it subordinated federations under the pretext of the partisan fight murdered thousands of Jews from different Ghettos. With these actions it was like always its entire staff personally involved on which Jeckeln put always large value. In the final phase of the war he was appointed in February 1945 the kommandierenden general of the area Breslau.

War shank, process and execution

With end of war Jeckeln turned out in shank and together with other accused in Riga before a Soviet court-martial was placed. The negotiation lasted from 26 January to 3 February 1946, Friedrich Jeckeln together with the other accused to death was condemned. In presence of several thousand spectators it was hung to still on the same day in Riga, in the proximity of the river.


  • Richard Breitman: Friedrich Jeckeln - specialist for "the final solution "in the east
  • Franc Flechtmann: November 1944: "And now only quite! "a Hornberger lets shoot
  • Israel Gutman (Hrsg.): Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. The pursuit and murder of the European Jews. Volume 2 (H-P), 2. Aufl., Munich 1998, P. 667
  • Institutes OF documentation in Israel for the Investigation OF Nazi was Crimes (Hrsg.): Friedrich Jeckeln responsible for the murder of the Jews in Lithuania, Lettland and Estland 1941 - 1944. (Document collection)
  • Refuge Ruediger Jarck, cross-eyed (Hrsg.): Braunschweigi biographic encyclopedia. 19. and 20. Century, Hanover 1996
  • Refuge Ruediger Jarck, Gerhard Schildt (Hrsg.): Braunschweigi national history. Thousands of years review of a region, Braunschweig 2000, ISBN 3930292289
  • Gerhard Wysocki: The secret state police in the country Braunschweig. Police right and police practice in the national socialism. Frankfurt/New York 1997

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