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» Economics » Planning and organization » Topics begins with F » Four-eye principle

Page modified: Tuesday, July 12, 2011 23:10:45

The four-eye principle, also four-eye control mentioned, means that important decisions are not to be made by an individual person and/or be allowed. A goal is it to reduce the risk from errors and abuse to.

Four-eye control is to be found industry-spreading with a multiplicity from enterprise-internal working processes to, which are rated as critical. Critical are processes whenever they can entail personal injuries or substantial financial effects at the time of a not proper execution. Four-eye controls are in the cockpit of an airplane just as usually as for example in the exchange. The four-eye principle is often a component of operational regulations, approximately from signature regulations: important, right-important decisions arranged outward (for instance sales contracts) must be signed by two persons if an insignificance border are exceeded.

The four-eye principle as principle of the management tries to bundle creativity and attention of the decision makers by the efficiency with problem solutions to increase: "Four eyes see more than two". Here also the possibility of the internal specialization in the guidance team as well as the mutual agency possibility are of advantage. The higher time requirement for decision making and the costs rising thereby are taken in the sense of the expected quality assurance and - improvement in purchase. If it comes by opposite opinions to deadlocks, decision making can be however also blocked. A structural danger of the four-eye principle is the tendency to the superficialness in details, if the partners rely in each case on the attention of the other one.

The four-eye principle besides with safety-relevant activities is used, which must be accompanied by at least two humans.

  • At the "participating four-eye principle" two humans with different authority work and complement each other mutually. For the solution of the task here a function separation is compellingly necessary.
  • With the "testifying four-eye principle" a person implements the task, while the other person and the result observe the process, to testify and confirm can.

Safety-relevant processes are frequently expiration-organizational in such a way out-arranged that four-eye control must compellingly necessarily take place, so that the process can be locked. In the exchange for example a person can enter the exchange data into the system used for it. Only the password-controlled release by a further person makes possible however the electronic transmission of the data to the bank.

Extreme Programming (XP) drives this system with its Pair Programming on the point. XP is despite its name rather a project management as a programming paradigm. Here the principle applies that no work procedure is alone accomplished.

In the medicine the principle steps in form of the secondary opinion into feature. The physician catches up a secondary opinion, in order to secure its diagnosis before the treatment by a professional colleague.

By four-eye principle also the obligation is understood more rarely to the professional secrecy: Information, which is due from a four-eye discussion, may be passed on not on third (professional secrecy for physicians and lawyers as well as the Beichtgeheimnis for ministers).

See also: Peer Review

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