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» Economics » Kardiologie » Topics begins with F » Forrester classification

Page modified: Thursday, July 14, 2011 02:35:04

The Forrester classification serves the organization of an acute heart insufficiency according to criteria. Evaluation criteria are the kardiale pumping performance (measured as heart minute volumes in litres per minute) and the filling pressure of the left chamber (measured as Wedge pressure in mmHg). The determination of these measured values takes place with the help of a right heart catheter. Similarly as with the NYHA classification oriented at anamnestischen and clinical criteria four classes are differentiated, these do not agree not however with one another.

  • Class I: normal blood river behavior. Rattles in the lung are not provable, kardiale ejection achievement and pressure in the lung containers lie in the physiological range.
  • Class II: the filling pressure of the Herzkammer is increased, the ejection achievement however normal. By the high filling pressure it comes to blood back pressure into the lung containers, a pulmonary edema can form, pulmonale rattles is present. The body periphery is normally supplied.
  • Class III: normal filling pressure of the left chamber, therefore no blood back pressure in the lung, no pulmonary edema and no pulmonalen rattles. The decreased heart ejection achievement leads however to a Unterversorgung of the periphery.
  • Class IV: increased filling pressure of the chamber, decreased heart ejection achievement. The lung containers and Unterversorgung of the periphery comes to blood back pressure into. A cardiogenic shock is the result.

The Forrester classification will related, in order to steer as optimal intensive-medical a therapy of the acute heart insufficiency as possible. Thus Vasodilatatoren lead such as Nitroglycerin and Molsidomin with patients with an acute cardiac infarct of the Forrester class II to a favourable decrease of the lung congestion without unfavorable changes. With patients of the class III however Vasodilatatoren cause a waste of the heart minute volume, with them are rather a careful volume supply meaningful.


  • Forrester JS, Waters of dd: Hospital treatment OF congestive heart failure. Management according tons hemodynamic profiles. At the J Med (1978) 65:173 - 80. PMID 685990.
  • Kodama K et al.: Hemodynamic and metabolic effects OF vasodilator therapy for heart failures into acute myocardial infarction. Jpn Circ J (1984) 48:380 - 7. PMID 6425527.

Articles in category "Forrester classification"

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» Fallot Tetralogie
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» Forrester classification
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