When one designates foreigners certain persons and person's groups, who itself according to the characteristics of the nationality, which ethnical affiliation, which from other inhabitants of the country, from whose perspective the view comes, differentiate geographical origin or the family descent.
Those generally linguistic usage and within specific special ranges (e.g. national and international right, population statistics) used definitions of "foreigner" are not completely congruent and partially also inconsistent. Also in technical languages it concerns predominantly thereby context definitions (customs definitions). Particularly with statistic sizes therefore the exact indication of the word meaning used in each case is essential.
In many languages of the world the word "foreigner" has a negative Konnotation, so e.g. Gaijin in the Japanese or Gweilo in the Cantonese one.
The term (intention/Extension) of the word foreigner is deduced from the perspective of an inland. By it one has to understand regularly a state. (For some non-self-national territories or states in emergence some away-following applies similarly.)
A person is foreigner, if she is a national of another state. After this understanding a person (from view of the inland) is exactly no foreigner if she does not possess a nationality of another state. If someone has both '' the nationality '' the inland and (at least) another state, then it is foreigner and citizen of the inland at the same time. This definition is legalistic and in the relations between states is generally used.
Within certain right ranges (e.g. foreigner right), not however those of the inland is considered as a foreigner, who is a national of a foreign state. There is then for example an agency obligation of the foreign state, thus in cases of the deportation. Stateless people are against it legally no foreigners (cannot be pushed away, not become e.g. into their mother country diplomatically represented). They are however in the foreigner right the foreigners on an equal footing. Whether stateless people are called colloquially foreigners, hangs considerably of their Ethnie off (see below).
A person, who is both a national of the inland, and those at least a further state, can be counted, does not have however not, for statistic purposes as foreigners.
A person is foreigner, if she belongs to a Ethnie, which is historically not assigned to the inland. This classification exists independently of the nationality. For example in Germany ethnical Turks are called frequently foreigners, even if them the German nationality, not however those Turkey to possess. On the other hand the Sorben is not regarded as foreigners, because their residential area is historically in Germany. Ethnical German without German nationality is usually not regarded in Germany as foreigners.
Definition the aiming at ethnical characteristics is common in the colloquial language, contradicts however in individual cases possibly the definition after the nationality. In addition the allocation of a person to a certain Ethnie is not always clear, whereby stranger and self-allocation can fall apart. Some states refuse for political reasons to recognize certain Ethnien as such or they explain persons against their self perception as members of other Ethnien. Such, not reliably clear characteristic, is suitable therefore only reduced as basis of a definition.
With increasing assimilation, which goes usually over generations, the ethnical affiliation of person's groups can change (example: the German descendants at the beginning 20. Century in the Ruhr district Poland immigrated, of whose Polish ancestors only surnames remind). A person can feel associated also several Ethnien and regard itself at the same time as foreigners and "residents" (see below). In the foreign perception (if necessary unjustified) one however mostly dominates the Ethnien, because psychologically and essentially often a clear allocation is desired.
A person is foreigner, if she were not inland born. In all rule this criterion is not stringent used, so that it is only reduced meaningful and logically inkonsequent. In Germany became otherwise humans of German which were not born in former German realm or its succession states, when foreigners apply. (see in addition: Mixing criteria)
A person is foreigner if her (more directly) descendant from foreigners is. Descent in the sense of the family origin is after the reason derived criterion, because the characteristic "is foreigner" must for parents be already determined. In the reversal this principle is as Ius Sanguinis (right of the blood): a child has an automatic legal claim on the nationality of his parents. Depending upon state this requirement can after several years purge and does not have be not compellingly used.
The German residence law mixes the criteria nationality and ethnical affiliation. Foreigners are after AufenthG such persons, who have neither the German nationality, still refugee of German nationality are. Late repatriates are not considered therefore as foreigners. This definition finds only for Germany application.
As Antonym to the word foreigner is used colloquially frequently "residents". Although linguistic usage in semantics comes to definition power, such a use is problematic in mehrerlei regard:
1. It collides to usual uses with others: Resident has a dominant factor definition as a "person, whose (occasional) residence lies inland". This meaning is assigned to the national reporting department, financing of the public households, the population statistics as well as the economic technology of the economical Gesamtrechnung (VGR). Here absolutely play neither the Ethnie, nor the geographical origin or the nationality a role. In the VGR besides (possibly) also the persons illegaly living in a country are seized.
2. It hurts the demand to contain the logical reversal of the respective definitions from foreigner to. Otherwise a person would be logically compelling "residents", if she does not possess (A)" the nationality of a foreign state. That is however wrong, because she can be stateless. (B)" to a Ethnie belongs, which is historically assigned to the inland. That is however wrong, because this Ethnie can be present also in other countries. (C)" inland one bore. That is however wrong, since this circumstance neither the Ethnie, which determines nationality still the place of residence compellingly.
There is generally no perfect meaning contrast between "residents" and foreigner (no of the Antonyms). Source and recipient (EN) of a discourse this characteristic of the word "resident" should be always conscious, depending upon context can an explanation become necessary around clarity to manufacture. Perfect a too "is not foreigner" has against it the language form "is a foreigner" (comparably the contrast "red"--"not red").
In the German linguistic usage the word Migrant (short form of immigrant) is often used as synonym for foreigners. Also here must be differentiated depending upon definition of the two words between strict and partial Synonymie. Frequently also of immigrants or immigrants one speaks. The words Migrant, immigrants and immigrants are however among themselves likewise no strict synonyms. Thus one differentiates e.g. settlers from immigrants by the fact that first in the new homeland implement their own social order and requirements for rule. One calls both groups however Migranten.
It is common to the expressions that they contain a durable shifting of the domicile, whereby remains durably undefined. Foreign students and "immigrant worker" are (colloquially) first no Migranten, them can however with unpredictable end of their stay immigrants become actual. The numerical collection of migration depends therefore also on which classifications apply in individual cases.
The "law over the stay, the gainful employment and the integration of foreigners in the federal territory" (residence law - AufenthG) defines a foreigner in "§ 2 exp. 1 as a person, who is not German in the sense of the article 116 exp. 1 of the Basic Law. The AufenthG replaced the up to then valid aliens act to 1 January 2005.
Unlimited right to residence as well as other rights and obligations of foreigners are regulated in the legislation affecting aliens (foreigner right). With the naturalization (naturalization) a foreigner receives the full citizen rights of its host country, e.g. the right to vote, and becomes thereby of right because of citizens. Depending upon host country for it possibly the nationality of the foreign state must be given up. Some States of (under it also Germany and the USA) extract their nationality automatically from their citizens, if another state one accepts.
Foreigners, who offend against the laws of their host country, can be perhaps expelled.
The German Federal Government used "Commissioner for Foreigners", who is responsible/for integration interests of foreigners in the Federal Republic of Germany.
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» Foreigner document of identification
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