A Fondue (of frz. fondu - melted, expressed ) is originally a court from melted cheese, which originates from French Switzerland and Savoyen. Meanwhile the term is used also for similar courts.
The consists of melted cheese, wine and spices. As bonding agent corn strength is used. Are tasted with a shot "Kirsch", garlic and pepper. The whole is kept hot in a special Fonduetopf from ceramic(s), called Caquelon, over a small fire, (Rechaud, expressed "Reschoo"). The participants put bread bits or cooked potatoes (so-called "Gschwellti") a long fork, hold these into the liquid cheese and implement circling movements.
Is of crucial importance the cheese mixture. In Switzerland is usual moiti" (French for halfhalf), with which ever to the half Vacherin and Greyerzer are admitted, what a cremiges, bright Fondue results in. Lovers of stronger Fondues mix Greyerzer and Appenzeller, Emmentaler or Ziger. Each region and each cheese action have its own mixture. Mixtures, which taste both good and well to be prepared are, are further-recommended often as Geheimtipps.
In France there is also the Fondue Savoyarde (Fondue from the Savoyen), consisting of the 3 cheese places Emmentaler, and Beaufort.
Pieces of bread are mostly cut made of Weissbrot (Baguettes are well suitable). Completely fresh bread is less suitable. Everyone of the mouth-fair pieces should exhibit also a piece of crust, since thereby the pieces can be fixed better on the fork. In the trade also special rear-practice-red (flat before-notched Weissbrote) are available.
Fertigfondues, which added without further directly in the Caquelon be given can, are far common, apply however under Fonduekennern as sin.
Who loses its piece bread, a "round" must pay (all Essern a bottle wine spendieren) or to rise and a song sing, whereby there are quite variants with the loser customs (in the Comic "Asterix with Swiss" are expenditure-whipped these and thrown into the Geneva lake). It is advisable thus to inquire before beginning of the meal about it what in the current round custom is.
Traditionally to the Weisswein (preferably Fendant) and/or black dte are drunk. Also one sees often that additionally a Schnapsglas with Kirschwasser is handed, into which one piece of bread first tunken can, or which Kirsch directly as means against the cheese lump in the stomach (a classical popular mistake) drunk.
At the soil of the Caquelon the cheese maintains to a hard layer anzubrennen. The Caquelon is empty-eaten (sometimes already before" ), lovers argue to out-scratch and feed as conclusion of the Fondue meal this "grandmother" with the Fonduegabel. This leckere, with to long setting tasting bitter layer is called often also "nun" religieuse. In the Unterwallis the last fifth of the Fondues with anise liquor and a Eigelb is mixed, whereby it becomes particularly strong.
In rural areas Romandie and in the alpine region Fondue is served also as late breakfast. In some regions the Fondue is not eaten with aufgespiessten pieces of bread, but the bread bits or potatoes are poured over by means of a soup spoon with the liquid cheese. This kind of the preparation strikes a bridge to the Raclette.
The history of the Fondue is old centuries. On the alps the Sennen was rather strongly cut off of the environment. The basic food, which they could produce, was bread and cheese. The way to the Fondue was thus only a small step. From some narrations (which are not confirmed) follows that monks were not allowed to take solid food in the chamfering time to itself. Hunger was satisfied by melting cheese, without breaking the chamfering rule.
The exact origin of the is unclear. Both Switzerland and Savoyen in France (where it as Fondue Savoyarde as landing speciality admit are) lay the claim on the origin of the Fondues.
The as a Swiss national court gives it only for the 1950er years. With the admission as the further court into the army example books, the court became in whole Switzerland only correctly admits. The military men brought the prescription from the military service into the families. Until today the Fonduekochen is in many households a pure man thing.
The first Fertigfondue was brought to 1955 by the company Zingg AG on the market.
Into the 1970er and 80's in Switzerland a campaign broadly put on led under the slogan FIGUGEGL. It concerned not around a new mode word, but the abbreviation of "Fondue Isch Guet and Git E Gueti Luune" - on writing German as much as "Fondue is good and gives a good mood". One could rent complete sets with Caquelon, burners and forks for a modest fee in nearly each cheese factory. Today this service is in nearly each Swiss household (at least) a complete set is available redundantly, there.
Quantity for 4 persons:
|1||Teel.||Lemon juice (after personal taste)|
|Pepper from the (after personal taste)|
|500||g||Bread in cubes cut|
The Caquelon with a garlic toe rub in. (This tradition originates from earlier times, where the benefit of garlic was considered because of the intensive smell as unschicklich (therefore it the saying "a breath of garlic"). Nowadays it is however rather usual to add garlic completely or in rough pieces and along-eat this then.)
Greyerzer and Vacherin finely rub and together with the Weisswein and lemon juice into the Caquelon give. The Kirsch well with the food strength (Maizena) mix and add. The corn strength serves as bonding agent. The pour by water absorption strongly up. Therefore one can mix the corn strength just as well or better with the wine. Importantly: Maizena to the cold liquid give. If one attaches the Kirsch only briefly before serving, its flavour materials evaporate less.
With to strong heat and under strong agitating slowly do not boil up to the mass becomes Taste with a prize freshly gemahlenem pepper and Muskatnuss. Who would like, a knife point can to it-give soda. This reacted with the acid and forms carbon dioxide, whereby the Fondue becomes airier.
After the Fondue on the stove has mindestends once "bubbled", serve and during the meal on a Spirituskocher (Rechaud) with adjustable flame to leave. Not forgotten to agitate with each well at the Fonduegabel festgesteckten bread breaking into industriously therein. Ideal way takes place this in form 8, so that in the center nothing can anbrennen.
The classical is enjoyed also in numerous Variantionen. Worth mentioning is here the Appenzeller Fondue, which is prepared not from a mixture, but exclusively from Appenzeller. In the canton Freiburg a Fondue from same parts of Greyerzer and Vacherin enjoyed whereas into Geneva of 2 parts of Greyerzer and 1 part of into the Caquelon to come. East Swiss however prefer a mixture from same parts of Greyerzer, Appenzeller as well as Tilsiter. The number of possibilities are endless, in Switzerland has nearly each village to be completely own prescription.
After the original form to the Fondue no supplements are handed. Today one uses however frequently sour vegetables, cucumbers, silver bulbs, Cornichons and Mixed Pickles, in east Switzerland also and in the Tessin preserved or fresh fruits.
Since despite cook still alcohol in the cheese mass remains remaining, an alcohol-free Fondue can be used also Bouillon or in place of Weisswein for. With the Bouillon however that sufficient lemon juice is added, thus the Fondue does not have to be considered (like rubber) becomes
The meaning of Fondue extended: If one speaks of Fleischfondue, then one means either the Fondue Bourguignonne or the Fondue chinoise, mentioned as Japanese variant Shabu Shabu. The "Chinese Fondue" is on Bouillongrundlage; in the hot beef-tea each participant cooks at the table its fine-cut meat, fish and other sea fruits, in addition, vegetables. Typical equipment for the preparation of the "Chinese Fondue" is the Mongol pot. In the variant Bourguignonne one refines added in the hot fat and/or oil.
A further kind is the Fondue Bacchus. Same meat and peppering mixture become as with the Fondue Chinoise, but in place of Bouillon Weisswein is used. This preparation is particularly in the Wallis well-known.
Although with none of these kinds something is melted, one speaks nevertheless of "Fondue".
See also: Fire pot
Besides numerous other Fondue creations developed, like for example the Schokoladenfondue, with which pieces of fruit of apple, banana, pear etc. with a fork are dipped into melted chocolate.