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The Faschoda crisis is a conflict, which took place 1898 between Great Britain and France. For the IIITH French republic was the Faschoda crisis apart from the Panama scandal and the Dreyfus affair the third large crisis within 10 years.

Interests

Great Britain had sat down to the goal of establishing a north south belt (of the cape of good hope to Cairo) of colonies in Africa. France wanted to establish an east west belt of colonies (from Dakar to Djibouti). The requirements of both states collided finally in the small Sudanese place Faschoda (since 1905 Kodok) at the white one the Egyptians at present to Muhammad Ali pashas 1820 a small away had Nile there established, which however for years abandoned and had purged.

Process

Kitchener

As Sirdar (commander in chief) of the Egyptian army the British general Kitchener formally represented the Egyptian Khediven, not the British government in London. Egypt had gradually conquered the Sudan in the years since 1819, had lost by the Mahdi rebellion however actual control of the country. With the victory in the battle of Omdurman on 2 September 1898 the rebellion was practically depressed. Despite its position as a "Egyptian" general Kitchener was in fact bound to the arrangements of the British government and its Consul General Sir Evelyn Baring.

Marchand

France had missed it 1882 to participate in the occupation of Egypt and its before large influence there increasingly to the British had lost. An expedition to the Nile should of France role in the region revaluations. The troop under major Jean Baptiste Marchand reached Faschoda coming to approximately two-year journey from Brazzaville on 10 July 1898 and hisste there the French flag for the indication of the capture. The away was renamed in away Saint Louis. The contingent consisted of 12 French officers and approximately 100 African contactors of Senegal (tirailleurs). At the time of its departure in Brazzaville the Anglo Egyptian campaign still was in the Sudan in full course.

Abessinien

France had informed the emperor von Abessinien, Menelik IITH first about Marchands mission. This sent a Kavallerieabteilung to the greetings into the area of Faschoda, which arrived however for a long time before the Frenchmen and whom region before the arrival Marchands had already again left.

Negotiations

On 18 September a British gunboat with Kitchener reached on board Faschoda. To vacate the Frenchmen requested their small away. The discussions between both sides took place in a friendly atmosphere, Marchand explained however to withdraw itself without instructions of its government not.

Reactions

The message of the situation in Faschoda reached fast Europe and caused in the British and French press violent reactions. Both governments reacted deliberated. The Frenchmen were not aware of their inferiority and had a future conflict with Germany in the eye, both sides wanted a war around a remote territory to lead and by the formal requirement of Egypt on the Sudan were also legal the British in the better situation.

Result

The new French minister of foreign affairs Delcass gave way to Marchand in the negotiations and received the instruction to the departure. In the Sudan contract both sides defined shortly thereafter their respective spheres of interest. Marchands group achieved peaceful completion of this crisis in May 1899 Indian Ozean.Die as an important condition for the Entente Cordiale of 1904 was regarded.

Literature

  • Hillas Smith: The Unknown Frenchman: The story OF Marchand and Fashoda. - Book Guild Ltd., 2001; ISBN 1857765370

Related links

See also: Race around Africa


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