Page modified: Wednesday, July 13, 2011 03:30:35
The vegetation zones in the Etosha national park form due to different soil and water conditions. Depending upon author up to 21 zones are differentiated. These can be simplified to eight zones, which are represented in the following. The main difference exists in the summary of different bush and tree zones.
- Salt desert
- The salt desert extends over the area of the former lake and is due to the salty (3.25 of weight %) and alkaline (pH value > 10) soil nearly unbewachsen. Only very salt-loving grasses, particularly the family Sporobulus, grow here in parts and are an important source of protein for the Antilopen and Zebras during the drynesses.
- Only during the rain time, if the salt pan partly stands under water, it offers, a habitat to many birds, among them the pink flamingo and the dwarf flamingo. In this time even frogs in the pan are to be found.
- Grass fields
- The grass fields are to be found at the whole southern and eastern edge into few kilometers narrow strips along the pan, often by the Kurzstrauchsavanne from the edge of pan separately. From the southeast of the Etosha pan the Grootvlakte (large surface) extends direction the west. Limited of the Sprokieswoud in the south and the Adamax pan in the north with their handing after southwest.
- Two special grass fields are northern of the Andoni water place the Andoni Grasfeld close below the northeast Nehale Iye Mpingana of gate and the Ekuma Grasfeld the Ondundozonananandana of island mountain, which southwest from Okaukuejo at the park border is. Ondundozonananandana is called in the language of the Ovambo in approximately of where the small calves never returns.
- The Kurzstrauchsavanne is to be found likewise nearly at the whole southern and eastern edge into few kilometers of narrow strips along the pan. The bushes from each other increasing with plentifully distance are rarely large over a meter and still get along with salty soils.
- The Dornbuschsavanne consists usually of different kinds of acacia, among them hook thorn, sticking thorn and loading cutting acacia. It is approximately around the pan in a thin strip between the Grasferdern and the Kurzstrauchsavanne on the one hand and the Mopanesavanne and/or the mixed drying forest on the other hand. The largest thorn shrub area is in the northwest with an acacia bush field, which changes eastward and southeast into Mopanesavanne and/or Mopanebaumfelder.
- Mopanesavanne and Mopanebaumfelder
- In the Mopanesavanne and the Mopanebaumfeld is landscape-coining/shaping the Mopane as shrubs and/or a tree and represents with its protein-yielding sheets an important source of food for the herbivores, particularly toward end of the winter. Large tree areas extend south the pan in some kilometers distance of the edge of pan up to the park border and in a rigid one nearly along the entire south border of the park. West the Adamax pan is an enormous Mopanestrauchsavanne, which changes into a Dornbuschsavanne. The Mopanesavanne and Mopanebaumfelder can be subdivided depending upon underground (sand, lime, granite) or additionally dominating shrubs and trees Narawandub and Marula) further.
- Mixed drying forest
- In the mixed drying forest Hirtenbaum, Sandelveldakazie, are to find rose thorn acacia and fustic tree. Since the mixed drying forest needs much precipitation, it seems to the Fischer pan only in the northeast on the Sandveld, north.
- Terminalia Trockenwald
- The Terminalia Trockenwald, also Tambuti and/or Tamboti Trockenwald mentioned, is dominated by high up to 8, the extremely poisonous meters. Between them also Mopane grow and It extends in the east of Okerfontain over Kalkheuvel to of Lindequist gate.
- Dolomite of island mountains
- The vegetation zone of the dolomite island mountains is to be found only in few places at the south border and in the west of the park. Typical trees are here the Moringa and the Bergdatteln large up to 10 m. Acacia is rarer to find balsam bushes and Hirtenbaum.
- Etoscha map, Namibia Wildlife Resorts Ltd.
- Visitors' Guide, Namibia Wildlife Resorts Ltd.
- Helmut Hartl, NAMIBIA - Exkursion of the NWV, 25 August - 10 September 1994
- Cosmos nature travel guide - southern Africa, T. Barlow and W. Wisniewski, Franckh cosmos, Stuttgart, 1998 ISBN 3-440-07665-2
- Daryl and Sharna Balfour, Etosha - Naturparadies in Africa, Franckh cosmos, Stuttgart, 1992 ISBN 3-440-06499-9
- Claire and Thomas Namibia protected areas travel guide, Ivanowski's travel book publishing house, Dormagen, 2000, ISBN 3-923975-60-0