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» Economics » Colonialism » German colonial history » Etosha national park

Page modified: Wednesday, July 13, 2011 04:30:35

The Etosha national park of Namibia is 22,275 km largely. The name of the national park has its origin in the Ovambo language and meant as much as "large white place ".


To 22. March 1907 explained the governor von from Lindequist, a quarter (99,526 km of the today's Namibia as the protected area, after that handed formerly game existence by Wilderei and heedless large game hunt to to the edge of extermination reduced and so that the meat supply of the population had been seriously endangered. The protected area extended over three areas. First lay approximately in the north of Grootfontein, the area number two included the today's park with the Etosha pan, the largest part of the Kaokolandes, and the Damaralandes in the north and extended thereby up to the skeleton coast and to the Kunene. The third area extended over far parts of the Namib in the south.

However there were not elephants since 1880 no more in this area and also in former times ten thousand animals counting Antilopenherden to a large extent had already disappeared. The preventive measures had success and led to a gradual regeneration of the game existence. However the land need of the here living races and the zugewanderten white settlers grew at the same time.

1928 were already made smaller the protected area. Between 1958 - 1967 was accomplished further reductions, which flowed in a cancelling of the game protected areas unity and two. In the course of the Odendaal plan for establishment of Homelands at the beginning of the 1970er years received it its current borders and had only an expansion of approximately 22,275 km (295 km in the maximum east west expansion, 110 km in the maximum north south expansion). It is however nevertheless in approximately as large thereby as the Land of the Federal Republic Hessen and the second largest protected area of Africa. Since the turn of the century efforts are under way to expand or landspreading even interconnect the protected areas in the southern Africa again. Also the Etosha national park is the subject of such considerations.

1973 were completely enclosed the park. By artificial boreholes the game existence in the park rose strongly, national Geographic wrote in March 1983: "Even as Etosha together-shrunk, rose the game existence within the remaining area substantially. Nothing lighters than that. One needs to add only water ".

The park today

The park is today split for tourists. The eastern, part coined/shaped by 5000 km large Etosha pan is freely accessible for tourists with passenger car. The western part against it may be visited only in company of registered travel guides.

Both parts are by Pads, i.e. crushed stone routes, which lead past the numerous natural and artificial water places, opened. A PAD connects both parts, these is closed by a gate near the Charl Marais dam. In the eastern part the Pads runs south and east the Etosha pan. The western part is coined/shaped by the long east west connection, which turns only far in the west after the south direction Galton gate.

Inlet is with sunrise. All visitors are registered and to have to sunset the park to have left or one of the accommodations in the park to have headed for. Leaving the vehicles is not permitted, nevertheless gave it already partially also deadly incidents with imprudent tourists.

Before the fence it was possible for the animals to pull with dryness of far north direction Kunene. Since there is not this possibility today any longer, artificial water places were put on. This and the gradual development of the routistic infrastructure made the Etosha national park in the course of the years to an important attraction for Namibia visitors.

Water places

In western part of the park there are only five natural water places, compared to 29 in the eastern part. Therefore in the eastern part also only 12 artificial water places were added, while there is in western 27.

With the water places one can differentiate four kinds:

  • artesische sources: here water is promoted with pressure to the surface. Most of these sources lie in close proximity to Namutoni, e.g. Small Namutoni, Koinachas, Goas and Chudop
  • Sources of groundwater in lime hollows, e.g. Okaukuejo, out (additionally still artificially one feeds), Ombika, largely Okevi, small Okevi, Numeros and Ngobib (a broken in cave)
  • Contacts and/or sources of seeping: here two formations of different permeability meet one another, in case of of Etosha a lime layer on a loam layer. Such sources e.g. are. Salvadora, Springbok and Okerfontein and Okondeka at the edge of the Etosha pan
  • artificial boreholes like e.g. Olifantsbad, Gemsbokvlakte


The park has four entrances.

  • In the east the of Lindequist gate, before whose gates three Lodges are. From here a bitumen route leads until Namutoni.
  • In the north the Nehale Iye Mpingana gate, which leads into the eastern part.
  • In the south the Anderssons one gate, which leads into the eastern part across a bitumen route after Okaukuejo.
  • In the west the Galton gate, the only direct entrance to the western part of the park.

A further gate in the west with Kovares does not serve the inlet of visitors.


In the park gives it three accommodations and some secured toilets. All three accommodations have at night lit water holes.


Okaukuejo the name of a former German police and military station is in the south of the national park. The place was called originally Okakwiya, "the woman, who bears each year a child ". Today there the vehicles management and ecological Institut have its seat carrier.

After the outbreak of the cattle plague epidemic disease 1897 a board of control was established here for defining the whole northern country, in order to prevent the further spreading of the epidemic from the Ovambogebieten lain north. 1901 were established it a fastened military post and a few years later after its destruction a police station with a round limestone tower. The today's tower was built only 1963. 1953 were stationed here the first game guardian in the Etosha area. At this time still Haikom lived as only humans within the park area.

After the Etosha protected area became after the Second World War ever more an also routistic attraction, increasing accommodation need developed. Thus Okaukuejo became 1950 first of the public accessible and all year round opened rest camps in the Etosha national park. Today it has a restaurant, a post office, souvenir shops, two swimming pools and tourist information, in which visitors can register their daily observations. Thus the other visitors can inform about visit-worth water holes. Directly beside the Camp is a natural water place, which is monochromatically lit up at night by a large headlight. Here one can do with luck also those during the day usually hides living to see. Humans are diagonally to the soil a wire mesh fence with something Stacheldraht, strained, protected by a meter-high Steinmauer and of the wall. It does not offer a 100%igen protection from lions however, therefore nobody should endure completely alone here at the night.


Namutoni is likewise a former police and military station in the East part distant for national park, 123 km von Okaukuejo. The name is derived from the Hererowort Omutjamitinada and means "from above down strongly flowing water ". Today it is used as visitor center of the national park. The water hole with Namutoni was discovered of John Andersson one and Francis Galton 1851 than first Europeans.

Namutoni was established like Okaukuejo 1897 as a board of control against penetrating the cattle plague. A fastened station - away Namutoni - from it became later.

After the First World War purged the plant. Only with establishment of the Etosha national park purged away again meaning got; 1957 and used first as base of the vehicles management and very simple, only during the winter months opened rest camp for visitors of the national park was again developed. The away was partly transformed to the museum and is today official national monument of Namibia. The routistic infrastructure was gradually extended and improved, so that an all-season accommodating enterprise was made possible. The Camp is in the proximity of the Fischer pan and tightens many birds. It forms the connection between Etosha pan and the supplies Omuthiya and Omuramba Owambo.


Halali is the name of the 1967 for general tourism traffic opened It is appropriate for approx. in each case 70 km of the two other Camps Okaukuejo (western) and Namutoni (eastern) removes.

The naming took place following the term originating from the hunter language "Halali "for the completion of the hunt.

Close by of Halali one can see the only mountains in the eastern part of the park. From one the hill with the Camp (Halalikoppie) one can observe the animals at the Moringa Wasserloch. On a hill in the proximity the German troops operated a Heliographen, in order to signal the comrades in away Namutoni, therefore the name of the second water hole comes in the proximity of the Camps, "Helio ".

Articles in category "Etosha national park"

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