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An explosive is a chemical material or a mixture of chemical materials, which can react under certain conditions very fast and set free a relatively large energy quantity in the form of heat and a pressure wave (explosion or detonation). These belong together with the initial explosives, driving and shooting materials (black powders and gun powders or propellant powders), igniting mixtures and pyrotechnic products to the explosion-dangerous materials (explosives). If the speed with that lies the reaction in the explosive spreads, over the speed of sound, related to the material, then one speaks from an explosive explosive.

Modern explosives are usually based on energetic connections, which contain the chemical elements carbon (C), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O). With the explosion originally the oxygen weakly bound at the nitrogen is connected with carbon to CO and CO2 as well as with the hydrogen to water vapour, while the nitrogen forms the very sturdy nitrogen molecule N2. During this conversion large energy quantities are set free. Also oxidizers are added to explosives to improve on the one hand in order the oxygen balance to stretch on the other hand in order high speed explosives and to cover high need in this way. Thus 2 became in Germany toward end. World war in militarily used explosives replaces the portions of high speed explosives ever further lowered and by all available Salpeter as well as oxygen-poor spare explosives. Briefly before end of war even alkalichloridhaltige weather explosives were then used for the filling of ammunition.

Both the civilian and military explosives contain every now and then still metals such as aluminum or zinc. While fine-powdered aluminum increases the muzzle blast effect by higher temperature, aluminum or zinc semolina in Fla ammunition serves the fire effect in the goal for the increase.

For the initiation of explosives are used. There are electrical, non electric and electronic ignition systems. World-wide prominent manufacturer of ignition systems for the civilian range is the Orica company with seat in Melbourne, Australia. Besides occasionally still blasting caps are used, which are ignited by means of If the main charge consists of a very insensitive explosive, then still another additional reinforcement charge (booster, impact amplifier) is necessary between and main charge.

Selection of explosives

Energetic connections for explosives of practical importance

  • Ammonium picrate
  • Trinitrotoluene (TNT, Fp.02)
  • Trinitrophenol garnet filling 88)
  • Tetryl (N-methyl-n, 2,4,6-tetranitroanilin)
  • Ethylenglykoldinitrat (Nitroglykol)
  • Diethylenglykoldinitrat (Diglykoldinitrat)
  • Triethylenglykoldinitrat (Triglykoldinitrat)
  • Glycerintrinitrat (Nitroglycerin)
  • Nitropenta (PETN, Pentrit, Pentaerythrittetranitrat)
  • Nitrocellulose
  • Nitroguanidin
  • Ethylendinitramin (EDNA, pH salt)
  • Hexogen (RDX)
  • Oktogen (HMX)
  • Hexanitrostilben (HNS)
  • Pikrylaminodinitropyridin (PYX)
  • Nitrotriazolon (NTO)
  • Hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitan (HNIW or CL20)
  • Triaminotrinitrobenzol (TATB)

Energetic connections for explosives of smaller importance

  • Tri nitrobenzene (TNB)
  • Trinitro m xylene
  • Trinitro m cresol
  • Trinitroanisol
  • Trinitroanilin (Pikramid)
  • Hexanitrodiphenylamin
  • Methyl nitrate
  • Nitromethan
  • Tetranitromethane

Energetic connections for spare explosives

  • Dinitrobenzol (DNB)
  • Dinitrotoluol (DNT)
  • Dinitroanisol
  • Dinitronaphthalin
  • Trinitronaphthalin
  • Methyl nitrate of ammonia (one salt)
  • Tetramethylammoniumnitrat (TETRA salt)
  • Guanidinnitrat
  • Acetone peroxide (APEX)
  • Hexadecimal hexadecimaltriperoxide diaminehexadecimal tri peroxide diamine (HMTD)

Oxidizer for explosives

  • Nitrate of ammonia (Ammonsalpeter)
  • Kaliumnitrat (Kalisalpeter)
  • Natriumnitrat (Natronsalpeter)
  • Barium nitrate (Barytsalpeter)
  • Calcium nitrate (Kalksalpeter)
  • Kalkammonsalpeter (mixture from lime and Ammonsalpeter)
  • Potassium chlorate
  • Sodium chlorate
  • Kaliumperchlorat
  • Ammonium perchlorate
  • Nitrogen tetroxide (in Panclastit)
  • liquid air or oxygen (in Oxyliquit)

Energetic materials in the experimental stage

  • Diaminodinitroethylen (DADE or FOX-7)
  • Trinitroazetidin (TNAZ)
  • Octanitrocuban
  • porous silicon: only a 2001 by accident to DO Munich discovered explosive with extremely faster (500 billionth second) and to violent reaction. Application for Airbags planned.

Kinds of explosive

Technically used explosives are usually material mixtures from energetic chemical connections, bonding agents, Plastikatoren and other additives. They are divided into the following groups:

  • Blowing up powder (for blowing up purposes used black powder)
  • Chlorate explosives
  • Dynamites
  • of explosives
  • Powdered explosives
  • ANFO (ammonium of nitrate Fuel oil)
  • Blow up-dredge
  • Emulsion explosives
  • Weather explosives
  • Oxyliquite
  • High explosiveness explosives
  • Ductile explosives (Plastiksprengstoff)
  • Polymer-bound explosives (PBX)
  • zweibasige liquid explosives

Black powder (oldest well-known explosive) is assigned, depending upon use, the explosives or the shooting materials. It is used as blowing up powder for the production of valuable Werksteine such as marble or granite. Since it is not explosive, but pushing effect does not have, the rock is relatively carefully broken loose and it to develop hair-cracks. After arising modern sawing methods this procedure loses however increasingly in meaning.

Chlorate explosives consist of alkali and alkaline-earth chlorates in connection with organic substances such as waxes, oils, wood flour or Ersatzspprengstoffen (Dinitroaromate). After their development at the end 19. Century they were used frequently, came however because of high rubbing sensitivity except use.

To dynamites belonged both the Kieselgurdynamit and from blowing up gel, developed by Alfreds Nobel, developed "gel dynamites".

of explosives consist of such as Glycerintrinitrat, Ethylenglykoldinitrat or Diethylenglykoldinitrat and/or their mixtures for the decrease of the sensitivity to impact with 6 to 8% nitrocellulose or collodio-wool are gelatiniert.

Powdered ANC explosives (ammonium of nitrate/carbons) are particularly reliably, there them an amplifier charge (booster) for igniting need. They consist of Ammonsalpeter and such as Kohlepulver, Naphthalin or wood flour. The Ammonale contains additionally aluminum powders.

ANFO (ammonium of nitrate/Fuel oil) consist in the simplest case of 94,5% Ammonsalpeter and 5.5% fuel oil. They are a sub-group of the ANC explosives.

Among blowing up dredging rank today above all mixtures from concentrated aqueous nitrate of ammonia solutions with low portion of explosive explosives, which are characterised by particularly high processing and transportation security. They are thus manufactured only briefly before the use, when filling in into a borehole, with mixing load vehicles. During transport to the blowing up place the individual components are accommodated separately into tanks from each other. This leads to the fact that transport does not fall into the class 1 addr.

Emulsion explosives consist of concentrated aqueous nitrate of ammonia solutions with mineral oil emulsified therein.

In coal mines under-meet special "weather explosives" begun, whose explosion temperature is not sufficient due to additives of alkali chloride, in order to release dust or methane gas explosions ("striking weather").

Oxyliquite consist of absorbent materials such as wood or cork flour, which is dipped briefly before the use into liquid air or liquid oxygen. Since these evaporate again, must be ignited shortly thereafter. For this reason Oxyliquite for large-scale breakups are not suitable. Their advantage consists of the fact that not ignited charges are absolutely harmless after evaporating the oxidizer.

Among the oldest military explosives ranked the which was replaced to a large extent later by TNT. Modern explosives contain often still the more explosive Hexogen, Ethylendinitramin or Nitropenta.

The militarily used ductile Plastiksprengstoffe like for example C4 or Semtex contain Nitropenta, Hexogen and plasticizing means. They are used primarily for pioneer purposes, are however also with terrorists like, since they are to be brought easily into inconspicuous form.

Polymer-bound explosives (PBX)

Panclastit consists of 70% nitrogen tetroxide and 30% nitrobenzene, which is mixed only briefly before the use. A similar mixture from 86,5% tetranitromethane and 13.5% toluol reaches a detonation speed of 9300 m/Sek.


Articles in category "Explosive"

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