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» Economics » Political economy » Topics begins with D » Developing country

Page modified: Wednesday, July 13, 2011 02:54:13

A developing country is a state, which is ranked traditionally still among the developing countries, but no more their typical characteristics exhibits. Therefore such a country is separated conceptually from the developing countries. The English-language term developed into the 70ern and originally referred to the asiatic tiger states. Occasionally such a country is called also "takeoff country ", since it overcame the typical structure characteristics of a developing country and in the term is to stand out against this group.

A developing country is based on the way to the industrialization, on economical development indicators. In this stage a developing country is characterized by a large change of the economic structures, which leads from rural economy to the industrialization. Such a change is usually only possible for a very deep wage level with the help of repressive state structures and. Therefore developing countries are usually coined/shaped by a strong contrast between poor and richly and susceptibly to political unrests. Differences between conservative forces and parties, which want to reach a modernization, lead to additional tensions. The social development indicators (Alphabetisierungsrate, infant mortality, life expectancy, development of a civil company), as well as the protection of the environment limp to the economic progress often afterwards.

A developing country can exhibit the usually following successes:

  • Obtain above average growth rates, which partly clearly exceed also the growth rates of the OECD countries.
  • They develop the spreading and depth structure of the processing industry up to the production of capital goods and create by purposeful investments into the material and social infrastructure, particularly in training of human capital, the condition for development jumps.
  • Comparable productivity with the OECD countries with clearly lower wage level.
  • Use niches of the world market and set on the export of finished goods.

From different sides (e.g. World Bank, OECD, IWF, EEC) in the last decades lists with developing countries were provided. An obligatory list of the developing countries does not give it however, their number varies depending upon list between 10 and 30. The definition, whether a country is a developing country, is a political. Generally accepted, measurable and accepted standards are missing. The World Bank and the international currency rear (IWF) categorize in each case 10 countries as developing countries. The OECD proves however substantially more countries than developing countries. The German Federal Ministry for economic co-operation and development (BMZ) and the European union undertook to implement together the attempt also social and political indicators for the regulation of developing countries, however on international level were rejected. Thereupon the BMZ its comprehensive list, which contained among other things also Ecuador and Nicaragua, pulled 30 developing countries again back.

See also: Developing country, tiger states, human development index


  • Franz Nuscheler: Learning and work book development policy. Bonn 2004, ISBN 3-8012-0350-6

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