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» Economics » Topics begins with D » Debt

Page modified: Tuesday, July 12, 2011 21:54:45

The term debt (f.) designates an abstract condition, in which an individual, a group of individuals (Kollektivschuld) or an institution can be. In most cultures of the world is a concept of the debt.

The concept debt is topic of philosophy, particularly the ethics, as well as the culture sciences, the jurisprudence and the psychology.


The condition of the debt develops, if an individual (and/or a group or an institution) can be considered as responsible for an offence in relation to a moral, ethical-moral or legal value conception. For example this can be a conscious offence against a prohibition (e.g. theft) or also the negligent offence against a prohibition (e.g. negligent killing).

As a condition for the debt it is mostly accepted that the guilty one had the option not to exercise those as badly defined act. In philosophy the criminally liableness is therefore often attributed to the free will.

Often is difficult it to decide, who at an act debt is. So it is to be considered in what respect during the practice a knowledge existed to the act around the crossing of a prohibition, and whether and in what respect with the author a guilty knowledge is present.

Generally the conception exists the fact that a reconciliation of the debt can be achieved, as does to the guilty penalty compensation carries out, which is Untat of the guilty one or to which guilty ones the debt is assigned.

If humans do not have a debt at a passing, then this is innocent.

A gratitude relationship can be understood likewise as a disturbance of the justice, however caused by exercising a good act. Then the beneficiary stands for this act in an obligation to the - one says, one stands in someone debt.

Sometimes debt and innocence are used also as names for fundamental moral corruption and/or perfection. In the catholic Christianity one speaks for example of the hereditary sin.

Debt can be described under psychological criteria as unconscious production symptom for the production or maintenance of borders. Pathologically it can express itself among other things as debt "weapon", in the Tabuisierung, the refusalrefusal refusal, the abuse of the internalisierten debt feelings (shame) other one.

Debt feelings cannot be conscious displaced, thus that, if they remind for example of a trauma (murder from affect). Another possibility of the displacement is the rationalization to find thus arguments for it why one did not make oneself guilty, what however the debt feelings abgespaltenen thereby not really suppressed. They act themselves in other place unconsciously out.

Debt in the Christianity

Debt, defined as condition of the sin, results in the Christian moral from crossing the requirements of God. For Christians the requirements are manual to the life.

Debt can be however also transferred and everyone can it load themselves and/or with debt be loaded.

After Biblical teachings Jesus is Christ of the of the mankind, to which the debt took each particular on behalf on itself. Humans, who want to attain release of debt, can ask after theory of the gospels Jesus in a prayer for assigning"…

To religious "debt" - to term see sin.

Culture science

Debt identities can diverge culturally and socially most, be differently pronouncedly and legitimized. In the contact of differently debt-socialized humans this can lead with unawareness of being, having, or discretionary provisions to substantial conflicts. The left hand comes with us to the greeting from the heart, is positively konnotiert. In other countries, it is the "dirty" hand, who gives it, exercises an offense. In the diplomatic service or with business/private outer land contacts it is useful to know the diverging debt traps.

Who kills as a soldier in the war exempt from punishment, in times of peace for the same action guiltily one speaks, which refers to a temporary or situative debt evaluation. Debt can be described as a Konstrukt, thus an agreement on contents, time and space of humans and their institutions. Violations of rules are in this sense kommunikative indicators, which aim at new rule arrangements and so that call new debt standards in.

In international law one can experience presently/immediately that during the counterterrorism the past state agreements do not seize any longer, because the terrorists (more or less - demonstrably) stateless operate, in order to achieve their goals. Which again some by the terrorism states concerned and their governments in "Gegenbertragung "to legitimize seems to extract from the jurisdiction by means of debt and and concomitantly the terrorist the constitutional reason situation of the citizen and the state. Thus (apparently) a right-free area develops, if on another level this State of institutions of a world jurisdiction refuses the authentication of the iurisdiction. Here does the question about a new (other one , Debt.

It is complicated, if in this sense the definition is called in after the "terrorist". In some states former "freedom fighters" govern, who were accused of of the previous ruling powers as "terrorists". These became "freedom fighter" because the ruling powers in its eyes power abused, made themselves thus guilty.

See also to L. Wurmser psychodynamische explanations, side 51ff, over mutual debt assignments of states as authentication of (possible) war actions, in order to through-add by this tactics inside or except-national interests. To pursue presently/immediately between the People's Republic of China and Japan.

Shame and debt as basis of cultures

The basic principle is the following:

  • In the shame culture the public appreciation applies as the highest property
  • In the debt culture the concern of humans of the of its debt applies
  • This topic is regarded in the Elenktik.

Debt and shame orientation after Klaus W. Mueller

Starting point of the coinage
Small number of coining/shaping persons, exactly defines: Parents (basis family)Large number of coining/shaping persons (extended family), inaccurately defines: , Foreigner, spirit nature used parents
Structure formation of the behavior yardsticks
Behavior yardsticks are taken over by the coining/shaping persons, the conscience developBehavior yardsticks are taken over by the coining/shaping persons, the conscience develop
Manifesting the standard conceptions
In itself, the own conscience is (intrinsische) standard monitoringOther persons or spirit/Gods are authorities for (stranger) the monitoring of the standards
Reaction during planned standard injury
Signal of the conscience that the planned act will represent a standard injury, on which a defense mechanism is activatedSignal of the conscience that the planned act will represent a standard injury, on which a defense mechanism is activated
Reaction during actual standard injury
Disturbance of the internal equilibrium from the inside out, it is experienced immediately a debt feeling, which is felt at the same time as punishment. In consciousness its is started a discharge mechanism.Disturbance of the internal equilibrium from the outside if the act other one (than not normative correctly) consciously, immediately experienced it after of this external conscious becoming of the standard injury a shame, which is felt as punishment. That again activates a defense mechanism, which is directed mainly against the external valuation, on which a discharge mechanism follows.
Result of the debt and shame experiences
A functional conscience (Superego) leads back to the internal equilibrium.A functional conscience (Superego) leads back to the internal equilibrium.

Articles in category "Debt"

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