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» Economics » Psychological test procedures » Topics begins with D » DANVA

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The DANVA (DIAGNOSTIC analysis OF nonverbal Accuracy) is a psychological test, with which the understanding of nonverbalen communication in emotional scales can be seized. Its application falls into the range of the differential psychology. One can test as well a person can understand expressions.

The test was presented to 1989 for the first time by Nowicki and Duke within the American Psychological Society and published 1994 in the journal OF Nonverbal Behavior. Today it is common in a far developed form, the DANVA2.

Execution of the test

The rehearsing and which can be tested gets photos and Sprachaufnahmen dargeboten and must for an evaluation decide. It is instructed to assign to each Item an emotion. In addition it has four response possibilities. It must exactly one select and may not not later umentscheiden itself. The presentation time is usually not limited to few seconds, the time for considering the decision.

The strengths test exist in its simple applicability, which is still facilitated at present by a computer-assisted procedure, whatever data export supports, which goes well with SPSS together. The instructions are to be given simply and understood. The weaknesses of this test are conceptional kind and decrease/go back on diversities of opinion within the expression psychology concerning the contentwise interpretation of expression behavior.

Structure and structure of the DANVA2

The test consists at present (conditions 2006) of five Subtests, which are subdivided for their part in Items.

  • Adult Faces 2 (AF)
  • Child Faces 2 (CF)
  • Adult Paralanguage 2 (AP)
  • Child Paralanguage 2 (CP)
  • Adult Postures 2 (POS)

Each Subtest points the same four scales (response possibilities) to (happiness, sadness, meadows and fear), which at the same time basis emotions are. For each scale two degrees of the expression strength are differentiated (highly and low). The Subtests could differently many Items and in longer or be dargeboten shorter form. 24 Items per Subtest are practicable.

The Subtests independently of each other designed, there it no uniform theoretical aspect over emotional expression behavior in the mimischen, gestischen and phonischen capacity range gives. Also the Subtests correlates badly with each other. DePaulo and Rosenthal (1979) found a median correlation of .16 in a Metastudie over 19 projects. In application therefore the Clusterung (or another data reduction procedure) is problematic to same pro gangs over several Subtests.

The mimischen Subtests consists of photographies and is criterion-led provided, whereby the work of Paul Ekman played a role. The pro gangs got an emotion presented and should behave in such a way, as it fits their opinion after to this emotion. They were photographed. The material resulting from it was validated at a sample (n = 185) persons of different age groups, which to indicate are, whether the picture agrees with, what it under the emotion introduced themselves. The DANVA2 is today more finely adjusted than the DANVA, which was originally developed for children from 6-10 Lebensjahren and less, but clearly more differentiated illustrations contained.

Language bindingness

The mimischen Subtests is not languagebound. The Adult Postures 2 (POS) - Subtest is with difficulty understandable in Europe and should be used with caution, since he contains emblematische expressions and culturally caused gestures. The Paralanguage Subtests is applicable only in English.

Control criteria

The test can be used with persons starting from 3 Lebensjahren meaningfully.


  • Internale consistency
    • Alpha between. 64 to .83
    • depending upon author to .9
  • Retest
    • as temporally stable one estimates, bpsw.
    • over two months r =,84, (n = 45); Nowicki and Carton (1993)
  • Convergent validity
    • The test correlates within the middle range with other tests, which measure the same Konstrukt.
    • depending upon author between r=,48 and .58
  • Diskriminative validity
    • The test does not permit statements about personality characteristics, in particular not regarding intelligence.
    • The test does not permit statements about social authority.


This test measures expression understanding verbal and with a fixed snapshot. Also the allocation ability to a word and the logical ability are seized to exclude alternatives. The temporal dimension of the expression sample is missing. Straight one however in the motion lies the expression strength.

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