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COURAGE is 1965 a created German monthly magazine with the sub-title forum for culture, politics and history, formerly the nationalEuropean magazine.

The appearing monthly magazine has an edition of approximately 10,000 copies. Its seat that associated COURAGE of the publishing house is Asendorf. Both belong to Bernhard Christian Wintzek. Belong to the editorship: Dr. Sabine Arnold (Moscow), Hermann plank (Brussels and Strasbourg), Dr. Karl-Heinz Hense (Gummersbach), Professor Dr. Eckhard Jesse (Chemnitz), Dr. Karin Kneissel (Vienna), Marco Martin (Berlin), Chaim Noll (Jerusalem), Dr. Peter pour (Hamburg), Professor Dr. Peter Steinbach (Berlin and Karlsruhe) and Dr. Alfred (Geneva).

History and political development

The magazine COURAGE was created in October 1965 of pupils and student as two-monthly magazine. Starting from May 1969 COURAGE appeared monthly and came starting from at the end of of 1969 into the turbulences of the stimulating climate relating to domestic affairs of increasing polarization. COURAGE stepped a "erring way into the right corner on", as the owner and former NPD Aktivist Bernhard Christian Wintzek today say. Thus the sheet from 1967 to 1982 was close to the militant groups boy national democrat, federation of homeland-faithful youth and Wiking youth. Publisher Wintzek was 1972 NPD Bundestag candidate as well as Mitinitiator of the working group of people-faithful of federations and the violent action resistance ("Brandt to the wall").

Since its establishment until 1983 the magazine was classified in the protection of the constitution reports as right-wing extreme. From nationalrevolutionary perspective the topics became democracy and society, environment and nature, education and culture and above all splitting of Europe into COURAGE, which treat peace and reunification politics of Germany; so e.g. the courage title from November 1974: "We are a people". This header brought at that time substantial attacks to the magazine and at the same time strengthened reproaches in. The indexing of the number 137 (January booklet 1979) - this expenditure could as "socialethicalally disorienting" and thus politically youth-endangering to adults be only transferred (cause was denying the Holocausts) - shock" the "welfare seed (Wintzek) became. It began the mental excerpt from the ideologiebefrachteten tightness of the right external position.

To the final break and new beginning it came on a coworker conference at the end of of 1979. With the Hebbel word "it belonged often more courage to change its opinion than it to remain faithful", started Wintzek its editorial and personal Credo "for an unreserved opening, for liberality, tolerance and mental This fundamental process of change of the magazine had become unreversible in the middle of the 80's.

Since 1984 the magazine no more was not called in the protection of the constitution report and won increasingly authors, like Ralf Dahrendorf, renowned also internationally, Ralph Giordano or seriousness Wolfgang Also it, well-known personalities, as for instance Peter Steinbach, succeeded the scientific director/conductor of the memorial place of Germans resistance to win for the publisher shank.

With the expenditure for courage 458 the magazine commits its existence. Since 1984 produce four-colored in noble art print, COURAGE to today a total circulation of over 7 million copies reached. There are only completely few independent politico-cultural magazines, which accompanied epoch the fate of the country over one so long.

Successful political process of change the extremism researcher Armin stake Traughber, at that time scientific coworker in the Federal Office for protection of the constitution, confirmed department of right-wing extremism, to the magazine in the year 1996 (MUT/351, P. 36 - 37, Ignoranz in relation to a political process of change). Now and then the detection of the magazine as alleged organ, still which can be found, new rights misses to each basis. The magazine carried out rather a development way to a democratic publication organ.

Publisher Bernhard C. Wintzek deals today openly with his right-wing extremist past. To mention is that the chairman at that time of the Central Council of the Jews insured 1989 Wintzek in Germany, Heinz Galinski, on 22 February, one welcomes "each change of position, which draws insights and will for sincere accomplishment".

Some critics doubt the transformation thesis and want to recognize further again-right core. The magazine appears meanwhile on aesthetically higher level and tries also to linking the idea to the nation more near to bring.

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